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Metals without Ores: The Metallurgy of 3rd Millennium Upper Mesopotamia with Special Focus on the Jezirah

Franke, Kristina A.; (2019) Metals without Ores: The Metallurgy of 3rd Millennium Upper Mesopotamia with Special Focus on the Jezirah. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

Within the last 30 years, intensive archaeological work in Upper Mesopotamia showed specific regional characteristics in terms of urbanisation, state formation and material culture. Despite the lack of ores within the region most sites show a variety of metal artefacts of partly excellent craftsmanship. This research aims to increase our understanding of the urbanisation process by exploring metal artefacts and metallurgical debris of especially the sites Tell Chuera, Tell Kharab Sayyar, Tell Mozan, Tell Bderi, Tell Beydar and Tell Raqa’i. It will also look at major similarities and differences between the metallurgy of specific sites and regions. The metallurgical inventories are examined with the help of state of the art technologies (pXRF, EPMA, SEM-EDS, LIA) to reveal their elemental compositions, the technologies employed in their production and their possible provenance. It is aimed to unfold differences and similarities in metal production and metal consumption on the studied sites with special focus on the Jezirah to understand its position among the 3rd millennium tell societies. This thesis discusses on-site metal production, access to sources, trading connections and exchange patterns. A significant aspect of this research is to examine differences in metal consumption between urban centres and smaller cities and villages. Major topics are production methods, such as the primary production of tin-bronze and the refining of black copper, and the deliberate or random production and employment of particular 'alloys', such as arsenical(- antimonial) copper and tin-bronzes. The results are compared to already studied metals from the adjacent regions within Upper Mesopotamia and the Euphrates Valley in the West.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Metals without Ores: The Metallurgy of 3rd Millennium Upper Mesopotamia with Special Focus on the Jezirah
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2019. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10078049
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