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Imaging fast neural activity in the brain during epilepsy with electrical impedance tomography

Hannan, Sana; (2019) Imaging fast neural activity in the brain during epilepsy with electrical impedance tomography. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique which reconstructs images of the internal conductivity of an object using boundary measurements obtained by applying current through pairs of non-penetrating surface electrodes. EIT is able to image impedance changes which arise during neural activity at a high spatiotemporal resolution through the rat cerebral cortex and therefore represents a novel method for understanding neuronal network dynamics in epilepsy. Additionally, it holds therapeutic potential for improving the presurgical localisation of epileptogenic foci in individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy. This thesis was aimed at developing EIT for imaging epileptiform activity in vivo and assessing its potential for clinical use. Chapter 1 is a review of existing functional neuroimaging modalities, the principles of EIT and previous studies that have used EIT for imaging epileptic events. In Chapter 2, the safety of continuous current application to the rat cortical surface at 10-100 μA and 1725 Hz, parameters that are representative of fast neural EIT protocols, was verified by histological evaluation. Chapter 3 details the development of two acute rat models of focal epilepsy, the cortical and hippocampal epileptic afterdischarges models, for assessing the feasibility of imaging epileptiform activity with fast neural EIT using epicortical electrode arrays. In Chapter 4, EIT was used to image the propagation of ictal spike-and-wave activity through the cerebral cortex at a resolution of 2 ms and ≤300 µm. In order to enable imaging of epileptiform discharges in deeper subcortical structures, the optimal carrier frequency for current application was determined in Chapter 5. Results demonstrated that the maximal signal-to-noise ratio of fast neural impedance changes during ictal discharges is obtained at 1355 Hz. Finally, in Chapter 6, epileptiform activity in the hippocampus was imaged, with a localisation accuracy of ≤400 µm, using epicortical impedance measurements obtained at this optimised carrier frequency.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Imaging fast neural activity in the brain during epilepsy with electrical impedance tomography
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2019. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Med Phys and Biomedical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10077710
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