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Prevalence of signs of trachoma, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection and antibodies to Pgp3 in residents of Kiritimati Island, Kiribati

Cama, A; Muller, A; Taoaba, R; Butchers, RMR; Itibita, L; Migchelsen, SJ; Kiauea, T; ... Solomon, AW; + view all (2017) Prevalence of signs of trachoma, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection and antibodies to Pgp3 in residents of Kiritimati Island, Kiribati. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 11 (9) , Article e0005863. 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005863. Green open access

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Abstract

Objective: In some Pacific Island countries, such as Solomon Islands and Fiji, active trachoma is common, but ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are rare. On Tarawa, the most populous Kiribati island, both the active trachoma sign “trachomatous inflammation—follicular” (TF) and TT are present at prevalences warranting intervention. We sought to estimate prevalences of TF, TT, ocular Ct infection, and anti-Ct antibodies on Kiritimati Island, Kiribati, to assess local relationships between these parameters, and to help determine the need for interventions against trachoma on Kiribati islands other than Tarawa. // Methods: As part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), on Kiritimati, we examined 406 children aged 1–9 years for active trachoma. We collected conjunctival swabs (for droplet digital PCR against Ct plasmid targets) from 1–9-year-olds with active trachoma, and a systematic selection of 1–9-year-olds without active trachoma. We collected dried blood spots (for anti-Pgp3 ELISA) from all 1–9-year-old children. We also examined 416 adults aged ≥15 years for TT. Prevalence of TF and TT was adjusted for age (TF) or age and gender (TT) in five-year age bands. // Results The age-adjusted prevalence of TF in 1–9-year-olds was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24–35). The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of TT in those aged ≥15 years was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1–0.3%). Twenty-six (13.5%) of 193 swabs from children without active trachoma, and 58 (49.2%) of 118 swabs from children with active trachoma were positive for Ct DNA. Two hundred and ten (53%) of 397 children had anti-Pgp3 antibodies. Both infection (p<0.0001) and seropositivity (p<0.0001) were strongly associated with active trachoma. In 1–9-year-olds, the prevalence of anti-Pgp3 antibodies rose steeply with age. // Conclusion: Trachoma presents a public health problem on Kiritimati, where the high prevalence of ocular Ct infection and rapid increase in seropositivity with age suggest intense Ct transmission amongst young children. Interventions are required here to prevent future blindness.

Type: Article
Title: Prevalence of signs of trachoma, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection and antibodies to Pgp3 in residents of Kiritimati Island, Kiribati
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005863
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005863
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright: © 2017 World Health Organization. Licensee Public Library of Science. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution IGO License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/3.0/igo/. In any use of this article, there should be no suggestion that WHO endorses any specific organization, products or services. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article’s original URL.
Keywords: Trachoma, Islands, Chlamydia infection, Antibodies, Eye diseases, Kiribati, Chlamydia trachomatis, Enzyme-linked immunoassays
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10077482
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