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The Success and Failure of the Schwann Cell Response to Nerve Injury

Jessen, KR; Mirsky, R; (2019) The Success and Failure of the Schwann Cell Response to Nerve Injury. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 13 , Article 33. 10.3389/fncel.2019.00033. Green open access

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Abstract

The remarkable plasticity of Schwann cells allows them to adopt the Remak (nonmyelin) and myelin phenotypes, which are specialized to meet the needs of small and large diameter axons, and differ markedly from each other. It also enables Schwann cells initially to mount a strikingly adaptive response to nerve injury and to promote regeneration by converting to a repair-promoting phenotype. These repair cells activate a sequence of supportive functions that engineer myelin clearance, prevent neuronal death, and help axon growth and guidance. Eventually, this response runs out of steam, however, because in the long run the phenotype of repair cells is unstable and their survival is compromised. The re-programming of Remak and myelin cells to repair cells, together with the injury-induced switch of peripheral neurons to a growth mode, gives peripheral nerves their strong regenerative potential. But it remains a challenge to harness this potential and devise effective treatments that maintain the initial repair capacity of peripheral nerves for the extended periods typically required for nerve repair in humans.

Type: Article
Title: The Success and Failure of the Schwann Cell Response to Nerve Injury
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2019.00033
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00033
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Neurosciences, Neurosciences & Neurology, PNS, repair cell, nerve injury, regeneration, c-Jun, re-programming, Schwann cell, PERIPHERAL-NERVE, C-JUN, AXONAL REGENERATION, FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY, WALLERIAN DEGENERATION, IN-VIVO, EXPERIMENTAL STRATEGIES, MOTONEURON SURVIVAL, NEGATIVE REGULATION, SIGNALING PATHWAY
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Cell and Developmental Biology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10075901
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