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Application of high resolution DLP stereolithography for fabrication of tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for bone regeneration

Schmidleithner, C; Malferrari, S; Palgrave, RG; Bomze, D; Schwentenwein, M; Kalaskar, D; (2019) Application of high resolution DLP stereolithography for fabrication of tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for bone regeneration. Biomedical Materials 10.1088/1748-605X/ab279d. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Bone regeneration requires porous and mechanically stable scaffolds to support tissue integration and angiogenesis, which is essential for bone tissue regeneration. With the advent of additive manufacturing process, production of complex porous architecture has become feasible. However, a balance has to be sorted between porous architecture and mechanical stability which facilitates bone regeneration for load bearing applications. 
 Current study evaluates used of high resolution digital light processing (DLP) -based additive manufacturing to produce complex but mechanical stable scaffolds based on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) for bone regeneration. 
 Four different geometries, a rectilinear Grid, hexagonal Kagome, schwart primitive and hollow Schwarz are designed with 400 µm pores and 75 or 50 vol.% porosity. However after initial screening for design stability and mechanical properties, only a rectilinear Grid structure, a hexagonal Kagome structure are found to be reproducible and showed higher mechanical properties. 
 Micro computed tomography (µ-CT) analysis shows < 2 vol.% error in porosity and < 6 % relative deviation of average pore sizes for the Grid structures. At 50 vol.% porosity, this architecture also has the highest compressive strength of 44.7 MPa (Weibull modulus is 5.28), while bulk specimens reach 235 ± 37 MPa. 
 To evaluate suitability of 3D scaffolds produce by DLP methods for bone regeneration, scaffolds were cultured with murine preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Short term study showed cells growth over 14 days, with more than two-fold increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to cells on 2D tissue culture plastic. Collagen deposition was increased by a factor of 1.5 – 2 when compared to the 2D controls. This confirm retention of biocompatible and osteo-inductive properties of β-TCP following DLP process. 
 This study has implications for designing of the high resolution porous scaffolds for bone regenerative applications and contributes to understanding of DLP based additive manufacturing process for medical applications.

Type: Article
Title: Application of high resolution DLP stereolithography for fabrication of tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for bone regeneration
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab279d
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/ab279d
Language: English
Additional information: © 2019 IOP Publishing. As the Version of Record of this article is going to be/has been published on a gold open access basis under a CC BY 3.0 licence, this Accepted Manuscript is available for reuse under a CC BY 3.0 licence immediately (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Ortho and MSK Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10075664
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