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The Impact of Retirement on Cardiovascular Disease and Its Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

Xue, B; Head, J; McMunn, A; Heyn, PC; (2019) The Impact of Retirement on Cardiovascular Disease and Its Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies. Gerontologist , Article gnz062. 10.1093/geront/gnz062. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People are now spending longer in retirement than ever before and retirement has been found to influence health. This study systematically reviewed the impact of retirement on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors (metabolic risk factors, blood biomarkers, physical activity, smoking, drinking, and diet). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Longitudinal studies published in Medline, Embase, Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, and Social Policy and Practice were searched. No language restrictions were applied if there was an English abstract. Eighty-two longitudinal studies were included after critical appraisals. RESULTS: Studies in the United States often found no significant effect of retirement on CVD, while studies in European countries, except France, showed a detrimental effect of retirement on CVD. Results from the United States and several European countries consistently show that retirement increase adiposity measures among those retired from physically demanding jobs. For diabetes and hypertension, five out of nine studies suggest no effect of retirement. Retirement has been repeatedly linked to increasing leisure-time physical activity but may reduce work- and transport-related physical activity in turn. Most studies showed that retirement either decreased smoking or had no effect on smoking. The evidence did not show a clear conclusion on drinking. Only a few studies have assessed the impact on diet and blood biomarkers. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Effect of retirement varies according to the health outcomes studied and country of the study population. Policy concerning extending the retirement age needs to focus on ensuring they are suited to the individual.

Type: Article
Title: The Impact of Retirement on Cardiovascular Disease and Its Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnz062
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnz062
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Retired, Metabolic risk factors, Smoking, Drinking
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10074440
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