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Use of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in the management of critically ill children in a Malawian paediatric unit: An observational study

Myers, S; Dinga, P; Anderson, M; Schubert, C; Mlotha, R; Phiri, A; Colbourn, T; ... Lang, HJ; + view all (2019) Use of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in the management of critically ill children in a Malawian paediatric unit: An observational study. BMJ Open Respiratory Research , 6 (1) , Article e000280. 10.1136/bmjresp-2018-000280. Green open access

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: In low-resource countries, respiratory failure is associated with a high mortality risk among critically ill children. We evaluated the role of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in the routine care of critically ill children in Lilongwe, Malawi. // METHODS: We conducted an observational study between 26 February and 15 April 2014, in an urban paediatric unit with approximately 20 000 admissions/year (in-hospital mortality <5% approximately during this time period). Modified oxygen concentrators or oxygen cylinders provided humidified bCPAP air/oxygen flow. Children up to the age of 59 months with signs of severe respiratory dysfunction were recruited. Survival was defined as survival during the bCPAP-treatment and during a period of 48 hours following the end of the bCPAP-weaning process. // RESULTS: 117 children with signs of respiratory failure were included in this study and treated with bCPAP. Median age: 7 months. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests were positive in 25 (21%) cases, 15 (13%) had severe anaemia (Hb < 7.0 g/dL); 55 (47%) children had multiorgan failure (MOF); 22 (19%) children were HIV-infected/exposed. 28 (24%) were severely malnourished. Overall survival was 79/117 (68%); survival was 54/62 (87%) in children with very severe pneumonia (VSPNA) but without MOF. Among the 19 children with VSPNA (single-organ failure (SOF)) and negative HIV tests, all children survived. Survival rates were lower in children with MOF (including shock) (45%) as well as in children with severe malnutrition (36%) and proven HIV infection or exposure (45%). // CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations of this study, the good outcome of children with signs of severe respiratory dysfunction (SOF) suggests that it is feasible to use bCPAP in the hospital management of critically ill children in resource-limited settings. The role of bCPAP and other forms of non-invasive ventilatory support as a part of an improved care package for critically ill children with MOF at tertiary and district hospital level in low-resource countries needs further evaluation. Critically ill children with nutritional deficiencies and/or HIV infection/exposure need further study to determine bCPAP efficacy.

Type: Article
Title: Use of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in the management of critically ill children in a Malawian paediatric unit: An observational study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1136/bmjresp-2018-000280
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2018-000280
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10071453
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