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The Displacement of Insufficiently ‘Traditional’ Communities:Local Fisheries in the Pantanal

Chiaravalloti, R; (2019) The Displacement of Insufficiently ‘Traditional’ Communities:Local Fisheries in the Pantanal. Conservation and Society 10.4103/cs.cs_18_58. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

The rise of community-based conservation (CBC) from the 1980s, heralded a paradigm shift in the global conservation and development agenda, increasing the engagement of conservationists towards the cause of the needs of Indigenous people. As a result, many international agreements were implemented, such as Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (1989) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992). In Brazil, a National Policy for the Sustainable Development of Traditional Peoples and Communities (PNDSPCT) was introduced in 2007, which came to recognise the rights and existing sustainable use practices of ‘traditional communities’. This paper uses data from a long-term ethnography of both the local people and the conservation agenda in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil, to discuss how environmentalists used the PNDSPCT to justify the displacement of local people by claiming they do not ft in any traditional community category, and instead should be called ‘rural poor’. Interview-based evidence from these communities shows the contrary—pointing out a long history of occupation in the region, customary practices that guarantee sustainable use and self-recognition as a culturally differentiated group. The results are used to explore how narrow notions of indigenous identity have been used to oppress communities in Brazil and in other parts of the global south. The paper concludes that a fexible and fuid categorisation of traditional peoples or indigenous groups should be used in order to avoid reinforcing the already oppressive restrictions placed on local communities that are close to or part of conservation initiatives.

Type: Article
Title: The Displacement of Insufficiently ‘Traditional’ Communities:Local Fisheries in the Pantanal
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.4103/cs.cs_18_58
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_18_58
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright: © Chiaravalloti 2019. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and distribution of the article, provided the original work is cited. Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow, Mumbai | Managed by the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bangalore. For reprints contact: reprints@medknow.com
Keywords: community-based conservation, mobility, traditional communities, indigenous identity, national policy of sustainable development of traditional peoples and communities, fsheries, Pantanal, Brazil
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10070409
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