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Probabilistic methods for high dimensional signal processing

Regli, Jean-Baptiste; (2019) Probabilistic methods for high dimensional signal processing. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

This thesis investigates the use of probabilistic and Bayesian methods for analysing high dimensional signals. The work proceeds in three main parts sharing similar objectives. Throughout we focus on building data efficient inference mechanisms geared toward high dimensional signal processing. This is achieved by using probabilistic models on top of informative data representation operators. We also improve on the fitting objective to make it better suited to our requirements. Variational Inference We introduce a variational approximation framework using direct optimisation of what is known as the scale invariant Alpha-Beta divergence (sAB-divergence). This new objective encompasses most variational objectives that use the Kullback-Leibler, the Rényi or the gamma divergences. It also gives access to objective functions never exploited before in the context of variational inference. This is achieved via two easy to interpret control parameters, which allow for a smooth interpolation over the divergence space while trading-off properties such as mass-covering of a target distribution and robustness to outliers in the data. Furthermore, the sAB variational objective can be optimised directly by re-purposing existing methods for Monte Carlo computation of complex variational objectives, leading to estimates of the divergence instead of variational lower bounds. We show the advantages of this objective on Bayesian models for regression problems. Roof-Edge hidden Markov Random Field We propose a method for semi-local Hurst estimation by incorporating a Markov random field model to constrain a wavelet-based pointwise Hurst estimator. This results in an estimator which is able to exploit the spatial regularities of a piecewise parametric varying Hurst parameter. The pointwise estimates are jointly inferred along with the parametric form of the underlying Hurst function which characterises how the Hurst parameter varies deterministically over the spatial support of the data. Unlike recent Hurst regularisation methods, the proposed approach is flexible in that arbitrary parametric forms can be considered and is extensible in as much as the associated gradient descent algorithm can accommodate a broad class of distributional assumptions without any significant modifications. The potential benefits of the approach are illustrated with simulations of various first-order polynomial forms. Scattering Hidden Markov Tree We here combine the rich, over-complete signal representation afforded by the scattering transform together with a probabilistic graphical model which captures hierarchical dependencies between coefficients at different layers. The wavelet scattering network result in a high-dimensional representation which is translation invariant and stable to deformations whilst preserving informative content. Such properties are achieved by cascading wavelet transform convolutions with non-linear modulus and averaging operators. The network structure and its distributions are described using a Hidden Markov Tree. This yields a generative model for high dimensional inference and offers a means to perform various inference tasks such as prediction. Our proposed scattering convolutional hidden Markov tree displays promising results on classification tasks of complex images in the challenging case where the number of training examples is extremely small. We also use variational methods on the aforementioned model and leverage the objective sAB variational objective defined earlier to improve the quality of the approximation.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Probabilistic methods for high dimensional signal processing
Event: UCL
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2019. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Statistical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10070035
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