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The Relationship between Pneumocystis infection in animal and human Hosts, and climatological and environmental air pollution factors: a systematic review

Miller, R; Huang, L; Walzer, P; (2018) The Relationship between Pneumocystis infection in animal and human Hosts, and climatological and environmental air pollution factors: a systematic review. OBM Genetics , 2 (4) 10.21926/obm.genet.1804045. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, there has been rising interest in the interaction of Pneumocystis with the environment. This interest has arisen in part from the demonstration that environmental factors have important effects on the viability and transmission of microbes, including Pneumocystis. Environmental factors include climatological factors such as temperature, humidity, and precipitation, and air pollution factors including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review in order to identify environmental factors associated with Pneumocystis infection or PCP, and their effects on human and animal hosts. RESULTS: The systematic review found evidence of associations between Pneumocystis infection in animal and human hosts, and climatological and air pollution factors. Data from human studies infers that rather than a seasonal association, presentation with PCP appears to be highest when the average temperature is between 10 and 20°C. There was evidence of an association with hospitalization with PCP and ambient air pollution factors, as well as evidence of an effect of air pollution on both systemic and bronchoscopic lavage fluid humoral responses to Pneumocystis. Interpretation of human studies was confounded by possible genetically-determined predisposition to, or protection from infection. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review provides evidence of associations between Pneumocystis infection in both animal and human hosts, and climatological and environmental air pollution factors. This information may lead to an improved understanding of the conditions involved in transmission of Pneumocystis in both animal and human hosts. Such knowledge is critical to efforts aimed at prevention.

Type: Article
Title: The Relationship between Pneumocystis infection in animal and human Hosts, and climatological and environmental air pollution factors: a systematic review
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.21926/obm.genet.1804045
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.21926/obm.genet.1804045
Additional information: © 2018 by the author. This is an open access article distributed under the conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is correctly cited
Keywords: Pneumocystis; season; temperature; climate; environment; air pollution; detection
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10068086
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