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Differential chondro- and osteo-stimulation in three-dimensional porous scaffolds with different topological surfaces provides a design strategy for biphasic osteochondral engineering

Mahapatra, C; Kim, J-J; Lee, J-H; Jin, G-Z; Knowles, JC; Kim, H-W; (2019) Differential chondro- and osteo-stimulation in three-dimensional porous scaffolds with different topological surfaces provides a design strategy for biphasic osteochondral engineering. Journal of Tissue Engineering , 10 , Article 204. 10.1177/2041731419826433. Green open access

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Abstract

Bone/cartilage interfacial tissue engineering needs to satisfy the differential properties and architectures of the osteochondral region. Therefore, biphasic or multiphasic scaffolds that aim to mimic the gradient hierarchy are widely used. Here, we find that two differently structured (topographically) three-dimensional scaffolds, namely, “dense” and “nanofibrous” surfaces, show differential stimulation in osteo- and chondro-responses of cells. While the nanofibrous scaffolds accelerate the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, the dense scaffolds are better in preserving the phenotypes of chondrocytes. Two types of porous scaffolds, generated by a salt-leaching method combined with a phase-separation process using the poly(lactic acid) composition, had a similar level of porosity (~90%) and pore size (~150 μm). The major difference in the surface nanostructure led to substantial changes in the surface area and water hydrophilicity (nanofibrous ≫ dense); as a result, the nanofibrous scaffolds increased the cell-to-matrix adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells significantly while decreasing the cell-to-cell contracts. Importantly, the chondrocytes, when cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds, were prone to lose their phenotype, including reduced chondrogenic expressions (SOX-9, collagen type II, and Aggrecan) and glycosaminoglycan content, which was ascribed to the enhanced cell–matrix adhesion with reduced cell–cell contacts. On the contrary, the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells was significantly accelerated by the improved cell-to-matrix adhesion, as evidenced in the enhanced osteogenic expressions (RUNX2, bone sialoprotein, and osteopontin) and cellular mineralization. Based on these findings, we consider that the dense scaffold is preferentially used for the chondral-part, whereas the nanofibrous structure is suitable for osteo-part, to provide an optimal biphasic matrix environment for osteochondral tissue engineering.

Type: Article
Title: Differential chondro- and osteo-stimulation in three-dimensional porous scaffolds with different topological surfaces provides a design strategy for biphasic osteochondral engineering
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1177/2041731419826433
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1177/2041731419826433
Language: English
Additional information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).
Keywords: Biphasic scaffolds, nanofibrous surface, dense surface, chondrocyte maintenance, osteogenesis, matrix adhesion, cell–cell contact, osteochondral engineering
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Biomaterials and Tissue Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10067965
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