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Depression, lifestyle factors and cognitive function in people living with HIV and comparable HIV-negative controls

De Francesco, D; Underwood, J; Bagkeris, E; Boffito, M; Post, FA; Mallon, P; Vera, JH; ... Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in People over Fifty (, .; + view all (2019) Depression, lifestyle factors and cognitive function in people living with HIV and comparable HIV-negative controls. HIV Medicine 10.1111/hiv.12714. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether differences in cognitive performance between people living with HIV (PLWH) and comparable HIV-negative people were mediated or moderated by depressive symptoms and lifestyle factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 637 'older' PLWH aged ≥ 50 years, 340 'younger' PLWH aged < 50 years and 276 demographically matched HIV-negative controls aged ≥ 50 years enrolled in the Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in People over Fifty (POPPY) study was performed. Cognitive function was assessed using a computerized battery (CogState). Scores were standardized into Z-scores [mean = 0; standard deviation (SD) = 1] and averaged to obtain a global Z-score. Depressive symptoms were evaluated via the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Differences between the three groups and the effects of depression, sociodemographic factors and lifestyle factors on cognitive performance were evaluated using median regression. All analyses accounted for age, gender, ethnicity and level of education. RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, older and younger PLWH had poorer overall cognitive scores than older HIV-negative controls (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moderate or severe depressive symptoms were more prevalent in both older (27%; P < 0.001) and younger (21%; P < 0.001) PLWH compared with controls (8%). Depressive symptoms (P < 0.001) and use of hashish (P = 0.01) were associated with lower cognitive function; alcohol consumption (P = 0.02) was associated with better cognitive scores. After further adjustment for these factors, the difference between older PLWH and HIV-negative controls was no longer significant (P = 0.08), while that between younger PLWH and older HIV-negative controls remained significant (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Poorer cognitive performances in PLWH compared with HIV-negative individuals were, in part, mediated by the greater prevalence of depressive symptoms and recreational drug use reported by PLWH.

Type: Article
Title: Depression, lifestyle factors and cognitive function in people living with HIV and comparable HIV-negative controls
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12714
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12714
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2019 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Keywords: HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, cognitive disorder, cognitive function, depression, people living with HIV
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10067882
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