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Transgenic and physiological mouse models give insights into different aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

De Giorgio, F; Maduro, C; Fisher, EMC; Acevedo-Arozena, A; (2019) Transgenic and physiological mouse models give insights into different aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disease Models & Mechanisms , 12 (1) , Article dmm037424. 10.1242/dmm.037424. Green open access

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Abstract

A wide range of genetic mouse models is available to help researchers dissect human disease mechanisms. Each type of model has its own distinctive characteristics arising from the nature of the introduced mutation, as well as from the specific changes to the gene of interest. Here, we review the current range of mouse models with mutations in genes causative for the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We focus on the two main types of available mutants: transgenic mice and those that express mutant genes at physiological levels from gene targeting or from chemical mutagenesis. We compare the phenotypes for genes in which the two classes of model exist, to illustrate what they can teach us about different aspects of the disease, noting that informative models may not necessarily mimic the full trajectory of the human condition. Transgenic models can greatly overexpress mutant or wild-type proteins, giving us insight into protein deposition mechanisms, whereas models expressing mutant genes at physiological levels may develop slowly progressing phenotypes but illustrate early-stage disease processes. Although no mouse models fully recapitulate the human condition, almost all help researchers to understand normal and abnormal biological processes, providing that the individual characteristics of each model type, and how these may affect the interpretation of the data generated from each model, are considered and appreciated.

Type: Article
Title: Transgenic and physiological mouse models give insights into different aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1242/dmm.037424
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1242/dmm.037424
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: ALS, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ENU, Gene targeted, Knock-in, Transgenic
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Department of Neuromuscular Diseases
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10065980
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