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The choice of embedding media affects image quality, tissue R₂*, and susceptibility behaviors in post‐mortem brain MR microscopy at 7.0T

Dusek, P; Madai, VI; Huelnhagen, T; Bahn, E; Matej, R; Sobesky, J; Niendorf, T; ... Wuerfel, J; + view all (2019) The choice of embedding media affects image quality, tissue R₂*, and susceptibility behaviors in post‐mortem brain MR microscopy at 7.0T. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine , 81 (4) pp. 2688-2701. 10.1002/mrm.27595. Green open access

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Abstract

PURPOSE: The quality and precision of post-mortem MRI microscopy may vary depending on the embedding medium used. To investigate this, our study evaluated the impact of 5 widely used media on: (1) image quality, (2) contrast of high spatial resolution gradient-echo (T1 and T2* -weighted) MR images, (3) effective transverse relaxation rate (R2* ), and (4) quantitative susceptibility measurements (QSM) of post-mortem brain specimens. METHODS: Five formaldehyde-fixed brain slices were scanned using 7.0T MRI in: (1) formaldehyde solution (formalin), (2) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (3) deuterium oxide (D2 O), (4) perfluoropolyether (Galden), and (5) agarose gel. SNR and contrast-to-noise ratii (SNR/CNR) were calculated for cortex/white matter (WM) and basal ganglia/WM regions. In addition, median R2* and QSM values were extracted from caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, WM, and cortical regions. RESULTS: PBS, Galden, and agarose returned higher SNR/CNR compared to formalin and D2 O. Formalin fixation, and its use as embedding medium for scanning, increased tissue R2* . Imaging with agarose, D2 O, and Galden returned lower R2* values than PBS (and formalin). No major QSM offsets were observed, although spatial variance was increased (with respect to R2* behaviors) for formalin and agarose. CONCLUSIONS: Embedding media affect gradient-echo image quality, R2* , and QSM in differing ways. In this study, PBS embedding was identified as the most stable experimental setup, although by a small margin. Agarose and Galden were preferred to formalin or D2 O embedding. Formalin significantly increased R2* causing noisier data and increased QSM variance.

Type: Article
Title: The choice of embedding media affects image quality, tissue R₂*, and susceptibility behaviors in post‐mortem brain MR microscopy at 7.0T
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/mrm.27595
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.27595
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: ex vivo imaging, formaldehyde fixation, post-mortem imaging, quantitative susceptibility mapping, ultra-high field MRI
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10065400
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