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Complexity of the Genetics and Clinical Presentation of Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17

Nethisinghe, S; Lim, WN; Ging, H; Zeitlberger, A; Abeti, R; Pemble, S; Sweeney, MG; ... Giunti, P; + view all (2018) Complexity of the Genetics and Clinical Presentation of Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 12 , Article 429. 10.3389/fncel.2018.00429. Green open access

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Abstract

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the TATA-box binding protein gene (TBP). The disease has a varied age at onset and clinical presentation. It is distinct from other SCAs for its association with dementia, psychiatric symptoms, and some patients presenting with chorea. For this reason, it is also called Huntington’s disease-like 4 (HDL-4). Here we examine the distribution of SCA17 allele repeat sizes in a United Kingdom-based cohort with ataxia and find that fully penetrant pathogenic alleles are very rare (5 in 1,316 chromosomes; 0.38%). Phenotype-genotype correlation was performed on 30 individuals and the repeat structure of their TBP genes was examined. We found a negative linear correlation between total CAG repeat length and age at disease onset and, unlike SCA1, there was no correlation between the longest contiguous CAG tract and age at disease onset. We were unable to identify any particular phenotypic trait that segregated with particular CAG/CAA repeat tract structures or repeat lengths. One individual within the cohort was homozygous for variable penetrance range SCA17 alleles. This patient had a similar age at onset to heterozygotes with the same repeat sizes, but also presented with a rapidly progressive dementia. A pair of monozygotic twins within the cohort presented 3 years apart with the sibling with the earlier onset having a more severe phenotype with dementia and chorea in addition to the ataxia observed in their twin. This appears to be a case of variable expressivity, possibly influenced by other environmental or epigenetic factors. Finally, there was an asymptomatic father with a severely affected child with an age at onset in their twenties. Despite this, they share the same expanded allele repeat sizes and sequences, which would suggest that there is marked difference in the penetrance of this 51-repeat allele. We therefore propose that the variable penetrance range extend from 48 repeats to incorporate this allele. This study shows that there is variability in the presentation and penetrance of the SCA17 phenotype and highlights the complexity of this disorder.

Type: Article
Title: Complexity of the Genetics and Clinical Presentation of Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2018.00429
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2018.00429
Language: English
Additional information: © 2018 Nethisinghe, Lim, Ging, Zeitlberger, Abeti, Pemble, Sweeney, Labrum, Cervera, Houlden, Rosser, Limousin, Kennedy, Lunn, Bhatia, Wood, Hardy, Polke, Veneziano, Brusco, Davis and Giunti. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Keywords: PolyQ, ataxia, CAG repeat expansions, SCA17, neurodegeneration, genetic counseling
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Movement Neurosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Department of Neuromuscular Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10063831
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