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HIV Cerebrospinal Fluid Escape and Neurocognitive Pathology in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy: What Lies Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg in Sub-Saharan Africa

Collier, DA; Haddow, L; Brijkumar, J; Moosa, M-YS; Benjamin, L; Gupta, RK; (2018) HIV Cerebrospinal Fluid Escape and Neurocognitive Pathology in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy: What Lies Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg in Sub-Saharan Africa. Brain Sciences , 8 (10) , Article 190. 10.3390/brainsci8100190. Green open access

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Abstract

Neurocognitive impairment remains an important HIV-associated comorbidity despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since the advent of ART, the spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has shifted from the most severe form to milder forms. Independent replication of HIV in the central nervous system despite ART, so-called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) escape is now recognised in the context of individuals with a reconstituted immune system. This review describes the global prevalence and clinical spectrum of CSF escape, it role in the pathogenesis of HAND and current advances in the diagnosis and management. It highlights gaps in knowledge in sub-Saharan Africa where the HIV burden is greatest and discusses the implications for this region in the context of the global HIV treatment scale up.

Type: Article
Title: HIV Cerebrospinal Fluid Escape and Neurocognitive Pathology in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy: What Lies Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg in Sub-Saharan Africa
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/brainsci8100190
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8100190
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Keywords: HIV, central nervous system, discordance, escape, independent replication, resistance
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10059911
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