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Systemic Endotoxin in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

Shendi, AM; Davies, N; Davenport, A; (2018) Systemic Endotoxin in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. Peritoneal Dialysis International , 38 (5) pp. 381-384. 10.3747/pdi.2018.00036. Green open access

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Abstract

Previous reports linked systemic endotoxemia in dialysis patients to increased markers of inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Many peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients use acidic, hypertonic dialysates, which could potentially increase gut permeability, resulting in systemic endotoxemia. However, the results from studies measuring endotoxin in PD patients are discordant. We therefore measured systemic endotoxin in 55 PD outpatients attending for routine assessment of peritoneal membrane function; mean age 58.7 ± 16.4 years, 32 (58.2%) male, 21 (38.2%) diabetic, median duration of PD treatment 19.5 (13 – 31) months, 32 (58.2%) using 22.7 g/L dextrose dialysates, and 47 (85.5%) icodextrin. The median systemic endotoxin concentration was 0.0485 (0.0043 – 0.103) Eu/mL. We found no association between endotoxin levels and patient demographics, markers of inflammation, serum albumin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, extracellular volume measured by bioimpedance, blood pressure, PD prescriptions or peritoneal membrane transporter status, or medications. The measurement of endotoxin can be lowered by failure to effectively release protein-bound endotoxin prior to analysis and increased by contamination when taking blood samples and processing and storing the samples. Additionally, contamination with β-glucan from fungal cell walls and the use of different assays to analyze endotoxin can also give differing results. These factors may help to explain the disparate results reported in different studies. Our study would suggest that exposure to standard peritoneal dialysates does not substantially increase systemic endotoxin. However, until endotoxin assays can measure free and bound endotoxin separately, the role of endotoxin causing inflammation in PD patients remains to be determined.

Type: Article
Title: Systemic Endotoxin in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2018.00036
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2018.00036
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Icodextrin, nutrition, bioimpedance
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inst for Liver and Digestive Hlth
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10059379
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