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Nonmicrocephalic Infants with Congenital Zika Syndrome Suspected Only after Neuroimaging Evaluation Compared with Those with Microcephaly at Birth and Postnatally: How Large Is the Zika Virus “Iceberg”?

Aragao, MFVV; Holanda, AC; Brainer-Lima, AM; Petribu, NCL; Castillo, M; van der Linden, V; Serpa, SC; ... Costello, A; + view all (2017) Nonmicrocephalic Infants with Congenital Zika Syndrome Suspected Only after Neuroimaging Evaluation Compared with Those with Microcephaly at Birth and Postnatally: How Large Is the Zika Virus “Iceberg”? American Journal of Neuroradiology , 38 (7) pp. 1427-1434. 10.3174/ajnr.A5216. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although microcephaly is the most prominent feature of congenital Zika syndrome, a spectrum with less severe cases is starting to be recognized. Our aim was to review neuroimaging of infants to detect cases without microcephaly and compare them with those with microcephaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all neuroimaging (MR imaging/CT) of infants 1 year of age or younger. Patients with congenital Zika syndrome were divided into those with microcephaly at birth, postnatal microcephaly, and without microcephaly. Neuroimaging was compared among groups. RESULTS: Among 77 infants, 24.6% had congenital Zika syndrome (11.7% microcephaly at birth, 9.1% postnatal microcephaly, 3.9% without microcephaly). The postnatal microcephaly and without microcephaly groups showed statistically similar imaging findings. The microcephaly at birth compared with the group without microcephaly showed statistically significant differences for the following: reduced brain volume, calcifications outside the cortico-subcortical junctions, corpus callosum abnormalities, moderate-to-severe ventriculomegaly, an enlarged extra-axial space, an enlarged cisterna magna (all absent in those without microcephaly), and polymicrogyria (the only malformation present without microcephaly). There was a trend toward pachygyria (absent in groups without microcephaly). The group with microcephaly at birth compared with the group with postnatal microcephaly showed significant differences for simplified gyral pattern, calcifications outside the cortico-subcortical junctions, corpus callosum abnormalities, moderate-to-severe ventriculomegaly, and an enlarged extra-axial space. CONCLUSION: In microcephaly at birth, except for polymicrogyria, all patients showed abnormalities described in the literature. In postnatal microcephaly, the only abnormalities not seen were a simplified gyral pattern and calcifications outside the cortico-subcortical junction. Infants with normocephaly presented with asymmetric frontal polymicrogyria, calcifications in the cortico-subcortical junction, mild ventriculomegaly, and delayed myelination.

Type: Article
Title: Nonmicrocephalic Infants with Congenital Zika Syndrome Suspected Only after Neuroimaging Evaluation Compared with Those with Microcephaly at Birth and Postnatally: How Large Is the Zika Virus “Iceberg”?
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A5216
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5216
Language: English
Additional information: © 2018 The American Society of Neuroradiology. This version is the version of record. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: congenital Zika syndrome, immunoglobulin M, plaque reduction neutralization test, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, Zika virus
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10058448
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