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Relationship between endotoxin core, staphylococcal and varicella antibody levels and outcome following aortic valve replacement surgery: a prospective observational study

Smith, A; Moravcova, S; Treibel, TA; Colque-Navarro, P; Mollby, R; Moon, JC; Hamilton-Davies, C; (2018) Relationship between endotoxin core, staphylococcal and varicella antibody levels and outcome following aortic valve replacement surgery: a prospective observational study. Perioperative Medicine , 7 , Article 20. 10.1186/s13741-018-0101-z. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Morbidity and mortality following cardiac valve surgery is high. Immunity is an important contributor to outcome. This study examines the relationship of staphylococcal and endotoxin antibody levels to outcome following cardiac surgery. Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we measured pre-operative levels of antibodies to endotoxin core (EndoCAb); 3 common staphylococcal epitopes and varicella on saved serum of 60 adult patients scheduled to undergo elective primary surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Primary outcome measure was post-operative length of stay (LOS) in hospital with secondary outcomes being development of infective complications, length of stay on the intensive care unit (ICU) and 30-day mortality. Patients were quartiled according to antibody levels and outcomes compared between the quartile groups using Mann-Whitney tests for length of stay and Fisher's test for development of infection. Results: Sixty patients (34 M, 26 F) were recruited with mean age 73 years (IQR 66-78), mean body mass index (BMI) 27.7 (IQR 25-31) and EuroSCORE II 1.44 (0.95-1.99). Those patients in the lower quartile for pre-operative antibody level had a longer post-operative stay than the upper quartile. EndoCAb (median IgG level Q1 42.2 MU/ml vs Q4 256 MU/ml) 9 vs 6 days, p = 0.025; alpha-toxin (median IgG level Q1 63 U vs Q4 558 U) 10 vs 7 days, p = 0.034; teichoic acid (median IgG level Q1 14 U vs Q4 419 U) 10 vs 8 days, p = 0.441; staphylococcal enterotoxin A (median IgG level Q1 55 U vs Q4 427 U) 9 vs 7 days, p = 0.865; varicella zoster (median IgG level Q1 1.325 U vs Q4 2.54 U) 8 vs 7 days, p = 1.0; and combined antibody levels 10 vs 6 days, p = 0.017. There were no differences in the number developing post-operative infections for each antibody type. The combined antibody analysis suggested a reduction in proportion of individuals developing infection from the upper vs lower quartile: 0 vs 0.33, p = 0.042. Conclusions: This study again suggests the inverse relationship between endotoxin core antibody levels and outcome following aortic valve surgery as well as suggesting a similar relationship with antibodies to staphylococcus. There is no such relationship for antibody levels against an organism not providing a peri-operative threat. Understanding this relationship may enable therapeutic manipulation of immune status, re-evaluation of risk and further investigation of the low immune state. Trial registration: The patients in this study are a sub-group of the RELIEF AS study.

Type: Article
Title: Relationship between endotoxin core, staphylococcal and varicella antibody levels and outcome following aortic valve replacement surgery: a prospective observational study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s13741-018-0101-z
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1186/s13741-018-0101-z
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Keywords: Cardiac surgical procedures, Core endotoxin, Immunity, Sepsis, Staphylococcus
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10057951
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