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Exploring C-peptide loss in type 1 diabetes using growth curve analysis

Besser, REJ; Ludvigsson, J; Hindmarsh, PC; Cole, TJ; (2018) Exploring C-peptide loss in type 1 diabetes using growth curve analysis. PLoS ONE , 13 (7) , Article e0199635. 10.1371/journal.pone.0199635. Green open access

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Abstract

Objectives: C-peptide (CP) loss in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is highly variable, and factors influencing it are poorly understood. We modelled CP values in T1D patients from diagnosis for up to 6 years, treating the serial data as growth curves plotted against time since diagnosis. The aims were to summarise the pattern of CP loss (i.e. growth curve shape) in individual patients in simple terms, and to identify baseline characteristics that predict this pattern in individuals. Materials and methods: Between 1976 and 2011, 442 T1D patients initially aged <18y underwent 120-minute mixed meal tolerance tests (MMTT) to calculate area under the curve (AUC) CP, at 3, 9, 18, 30, 48 and 72 months after diagnosis (n = 1537). The data were analysed using the novel SITAR mixed effects growth curve model (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation). It fits a mean AUC growth curve, but also allows the curve’s mean level and rate of fall to vary between individuals so as to best fit the individual patient curves. These curve adjustments define individual curve shape. Results: The square root (√) AUC scale provided the best fit. The mean levels and rates of fall for individuals were normally distributed and uncorrelated with each other. Age at diagnosis and √AUC at 3 months strongly predicted the patient-specific mean levels, while younger age at diagnosis (p<0.0001) and the 120-minute CP value of the 3-month MMTT (p = 0.002) predicted the patient-specific rates of fall. Conclusions: SITAR growth curve analysis is a useful tool to assess CP loss in type 1 diabetes, explaining patient differences in terms of their mean level and rate of fall. A definition of rapid CP loss could be based on a quantile of the rate of fall distribution, allowing better understanding of factors determining CP loss and stratification of patients into targeted therapies.

Type: Article
Title: Exploring C-peptide loss in type 1 diabetes using growth curve analysis
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199635
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199635
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright: © 2018 Besser et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Genetics and Genomic Medicine Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Population, Policy and Practice Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10057383
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