UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

Alzheimer-associated cerebrospinal fluid fragments of neurogranin are generated by Calpain-1 and prolyl endopeptidase

Becker, B; Nazir, FH; Brinkmalm, G; Camporesi, E; Kvartsberg, H; Portelius, E; Bostrom, M; ... Blennow, K; + view all (2018) Alzheimer-associated cerebrospinal fluid fragments of neurogranin are generated by Calpain-1 and prolyl endopeptidase. Molecular Neurodegeneration , 13 , Article 47. 10.1186/s13024-018-0279-z. Green open access

[thumbnail of s13024-018-0279-z.pdf]
Preview
Text
s13024-018-0279-z.pdf - Published Version

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neurogranin (Ng) is a small 7.6 kDa postsynaptic protein that has been detected at elevated concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), both as a full-length molecule and as fragments from its C-terminal half. Ng is involved in postsynaptic calcium (Ca) signal transduction and memory formation via binding to calmodulin in a Ca-dependent manner. The mechanism of Ng secretion from neurons to CSF is currently unknown, but enzymatic cleavage of Ng may be of relevance. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the enzymes responsible for the cleavage of Ng, yielding the Ng fragment pattern of C-terminal fragments detectable and increased in CSF of AD patients. METHODS: Fluorigenic quenched FRET probes containing sequences of Ng were utilized to identify Ng cleaving activities among enzymes known to have increased activity in AD and in chromatographically fractionated mouse brain extracts. RESULTS: Human Calpain-1 and prolyl endopeptidase were identified as the candidate enzymes involved in the formation of endogenous Ng peptides present in CSF, cleaving mainly in the central region of Ng, and between amino acids 75_76 in the Ng sequence, respectively. The cleavage by Calpain-1 affects the IQ domain of Ng, which may deactivate or change the function of Ng in Ca2+/calmodulin -dependent signaling for synaptic plasticity. While shorter Ng fragments were readily cleaved in vitro by prolyl endopeptidase, the efficiency of cleavage on larger Ng fragments was much lower. CONCLUSIONS: Calpain-1 and prolyl endopeptidase cleave Ng in the IQ domain and near the C-terminus, respectively, yielding specific fragments of Ng in CSF. These fragments may give clues to the roles of increased activities of these enzymes in the pathophysiology of AD, and provide possible targets for pharmacologic intervention.

Type: Article
Title: Alzheimer-associated cerebrospinal fluid fragments of neurogranin are generated by Calpain-1 and prolyl endopeptidase
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s13024-018-0279-z
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13024-018-0279-z
Language: English
Additional information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Neurosciences, Neurosciences & Neurology, Neurogranin, Calpain, Prolyl endopeptidase, Postsynaptic protein, IQ domain, Biomarker, Alzheimer's disease, SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY, COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT, PROTEIN NEUROGRANIN, DISEASE, BRAIN, OLIGOPEPTIDASE, CALMODULIN, DEGENERATION, MODULATION, SUBSTRATE
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10056824
Downloads since deposit
55Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item