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Assessment and Management of Anti-insulin Autoantibodies in Varying Presentations of Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome

Church, D; Cardoso, L; Kay, RG; Williams, CL; Freudenthal, B; Clarke, C; Harris, J; ... Semple, R; + view all (2018) Assessment and Management of Anti-insulin Autoantibodies in Varying Presentations of Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , Article jc.2018-00972. 10.1210/jc.2018-00972. Green open access

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Abstract

Context: Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), spontaneous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia due to insulin-binding autoantibodies, may be difficult to distinguish from tumoral or other forms of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia including surreptitious insulin administration. No standardized treatment regimen exists. Objectives: To evaluate an analytic approach to IAS and responses to different treatments. Design and Setting: Observational study in the UK Severe Insulin Resistance Service. Patients: 6 patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and detectable circulating anti-insulin antibody (IA). Main outcome measures: Glycemia, plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations by immunoassay or mass spectrometry (MS). Immunoreactive insulin was determined in the context of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and gel filtration chromatography (GFC). IA quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA), and IA were further characterized using radioligand binding studies. Results: All patients were diagnosed with IAS (5 IgG, 1 IgA) based on high insulin:C-peptide ratio, low insulin recovery after PEG precipitation, and GFC evidence of antibody-bound insulin. Neither ELISA nor RIA result proved diagnostic for every case. MS provided a more robust quantification of insulin in the context of IA. 1 patient was managed conservatively, 4 were treated with diazoxide without sustained benefit, and 4 were treated with immunosuppression with highly variable responses. IA affinity did not appear to influence presentation or prognosis. Conclusions: IAS should be considered in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and a high insulin:C-peptide ratio. Low insulin recovery on PEG precipitation supports the presence of insulin-binding antibodies, with GFC providing definitive confirmation. Immunomodulatory therapy should be customized according to individual needs and clinical response.

Type: Article
Title: Assessment and Management of Anti-insulin Autoantibodies in Varying Presentations of Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1210/jc.2018-00972
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-00972
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Renal Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10055202
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