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Influence of chlorine on the fate of Pb and Cu during clinkerization

Zhang, B; Bogush, A; Wei, J; Xu, W; Zeng, Z; Zhang, T; Yu, Q; (2018) Influence of chlorine on the fate of Pb and Cu during clinkerization. Energy and Fuels , 32 (7) pp. 7718-7726. 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b01111. Green open access

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Abstract

The fate of heavy metals during clinkerization is of crucial significance to the utilization of solid waste as fuels and raw materials in cement kiln producing clinker. A ternary system of clinker-heavy metal-chlorine was developed that is more coincident with the condition of co-processing of solid waste in cement kiln. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationships among chlorine, volatilization and solidification of Cu/Pb, and mineral phases of the clinker during clinkirization. The AlCl3·6H2O (chlorine source) and PbO/CuO were mixed with cement raw meal in appropriate ratios to produce co-processed clinkers. The volatilization and solidification of Pb and Cu were investigated experimentally using a combination of atomic absorption spectrometry, electron probe micro-analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscope, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction quantitative analyses. The volatilization ratios of Pb and Cu increased up to 46.18% and 34.04%, respectively, with increasing AlCl3·6H2O content up to 1.6%. comparing to the cement mixtures without AlCl3·6H2O addition (Pb and Cu volatilisation ratios are 49.90% and 27.21%, respectively). Pb and Cu oxides can be transformed into Pb and Cu chlorides, that are not stable and have high vapor pressure. Pb and Cu are mainly concentrated in the interstitial phases of the clinker. The addition of AlCl3·6H2O led to increase the crystal size of alite and belite. X-ray diffraction quantitative analyses proved that the content of silicate phase increased with the corresponding content of interstitial phases decreased during clinkerization with the addition of AlCl3·6H2O, that decreased the ability of clinker to solidify Pb and Cu in the produced clinkers. This research can help to promote understanding of the fate of heavy metals during the cement kiln co-processing of solid wastes and meaningfully for energy conservation and sustainable development.

Type: Article
Title: Influence of chlorine on the fate of Pb and Cu during clinkerization
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b01111
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b01111
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: energy; chlorine; heavy metals; clinkerization; volatilization; mineral phases
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Civil, Environ and Geomatic Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10050548
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