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Social impacts of protected areas: Exploring evidence of trade-offs and synergies

Woodhouse, E; Bedelian, C; Dawson, N; Barnes, P; (2018) Social impacts of protected areas: Exploring evidence of trade-offs and synergies. In: Mace, G and Schreckenberg, K and Poudyal, M, (eds.) Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation: Trade-Offs and Governance. (pp. 305-316). Routledge: London, UK. Green open access

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Protected area objectives commonly emphasise pro-poor and equitable management with participation by local communities. However, win-wins for conservation and development are elusive and the social impacts remain contentious. Protected areas have positive and negative impacts on multiple components of wellbeing by changing the availability of and access to ecosystem services, transforming institutional arrangements and power relationships, and through development activities such as tourism. Impact evaluations focus on material impacts, but evidence shows that supporting relational and subjective dimensions of wellbeing is crucial to improve local legitimacy. Positive social-ecological synergies are most apparent where governance arrangements allow for local involvement and secure tenure rights and equitable distribution of benefits. However, trade-offs are typical and can be seen within and between different social and ecological outcomes, across spatial and temporal scales, and social groups, with the most marginalised groups often bearing the costs. Provision of material compensation is a common tool to mitigate trade-offs, yet to be effective must address non-material factors such as traditional knowledge, cultural values and local social institutions. The promotion of synergies is best approached through confronting and negotiating trade-offs at the inception stage and beyond within participatory and adaptive governance systems.

Type: Book chapter
Title: Social impacts of protected areas: Exploring evidence of trade-offs and synergies
ISBN-13: 9781138580831
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.4324/9780429507090-17
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429507090-17
Language: English
Additional information: The Open Access version of this book, available at https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780429016295, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of SandHS > Dept of Anthropology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10048426
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