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Functionally graded additive manufacturing to achieve functionality specifications of osteochondral scaffolds

Monzon, M; Liu, C; Ajami, S; Oliveira, M; Donate, R; Ribeiro, V; Reis, R; (2018) Functionally graded additive manufacturing to achieve functionality specifications of osteochondral scaffolds. Bio-Design and Manufacturing , 1 (1) pp. 69-75. 10.1007/s42242-018-0003-4. Green open access

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Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease, characterised by cartilage loss and changes in bone at the interface of a joint resulting in pain, stiffness and reduced mobility. OA is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions as identified in Bone and Joint Decade. According to the World Health Organisation 40% of people over the age of 70 have OA. This joint disease affects around 0.4 billion people with patients in Europe accounting for up to 30%. The figure is set to increase with the ageing problem. Patients with OA often suffer pain and loss of mobility and go on to require an end stage total joint replacement. This would happen when the loss of quality of cartilage and bone at the joint interface has significantly reduced the quality of life of the patient, and non-surgical treatments are no longer effective. Current non-surgical treatments for OA involve non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. Surgical treatments include osteotomy, abrasion arthroplasty, microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). This is a two stage surgical procedure with the associate costs and infection being the main concern. For small osteochondral defects, microfracture (MF) marrow stimulation and for large cartilaginous defects the autologous chondrocyte implantation are considered as necessary treatments. However, MF produces fibrocartilage not native hyaline cartilage. While for defects that have progressed to a stage that affects the subchondral bone, other treatments are no longer effective and joint replacement operation is the only alternative. The demand for innovative therapeutic alternatives for complete healing of OA is significant. The treatment of cartilage and osteochondral (OC) defects remains a challenge since treatments so far have failed to achieve complete restoration of the properties of joint cartilage. Many new technologies, such as osteochondral tissue engineering, have been studied and applied to repair osteochondral defects. Commercially available osteochondral scaffolds have been used in patients with OC defects. However, no products have so far demonstrated to provide biomechanical properties suitable to promote the durable regeneration of large OC defects [1]. The main issue with these commercially available OC scaffolds is poor cartilage fill associated with fibrocartilage formation. The aim of this paper is to define the functionality and performance which would be required for intended clinical applications in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Also, to show that the capabilities of 3D bioprinting and functionally graded additive manufacturing scaffolds are suitable to meet most of these requirements.

Type: Article
Title: Functionally graded additive manufacturing to achieve functionality specifications of osteochondral scaffolds
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s42242-018-0003-4
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-018-0003-4
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Ortho and MSK Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Developmental Biology and Cancer Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10048252
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