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Role of mitochondrial ROS in the brain: from physiology to neurodegeneration

Angelova, PR; Abramov, AY; (2018) Role of mitochondrial ROS in the brain: from physiology to neurodegeneration. FEBS Letters , 592 (5) pp. 692-702. 10.1002/1873-3468.12964. Green open access

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Abstract

Mitochondria are key cell organelles in that they are responsible for energy production and control many processes from signalling to cell death. The function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is coupled with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide. As a result of the constant production of ROS, mitochondria are protected by highly efficient antioxidant systems. The rapidly changing levels of ROS in mitochondria, coupled with multiple essential cellular functions, make ROS apt for physiological signalling. Thus, mutations, environmental toxins and chronic ischaemic conditions could affect the mitochondrial redox balance and lead to the development of pathology. In long‐living and non‐mitotic cells such as neurons, oxidative stress induced by overproduction of mitochondrial ROS or impairment of the antioxidant defence results in a dysfunction of mitochondria and initiation of the cell death cascade. Mitochondrial ROS overproduction and changes in mitochondrial redox homeostasis have been shown to be involved in both a number of neurological conditions and a majority of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we summarise the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in the mechanism of neuronal loss of major neurodegenerative disorders.

Type: Article
Title: Role of mitochondrial ROS in the brain: from physiology to neurodegeneration
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/1873-3468.12964
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.12964
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: astrocytes, mitochondria, neurodegeneration, neuron, reactive oxygen species
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Movement Neurosciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10048208
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