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Cutaneous vasculitis and recurrent infection caused by deficiency in complement factor I

Nanthapisal, S; Eleftheriou, D; Gilmour, K; Leone, V; Ramnath, R; Omoyinmi, E; Hong, Y; ... Brogan, PA; + view all (2018) Cutaneous vasculitis and recurrent infection caused by deficiency in complement factor I. Frontiers in Immunology , 9 , Article 735. 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00735. Green open access

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Abstract

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis arises from immune complex deposition and dysregulated complement activation in small blood vessels. There are many causes, including dysregulated host response to infection, drug reactions, and various autoimmune conditions. It is increasingly recognised that some monogenic autoinflammatory diseases cause vasculitis, although genetic causes of vasculitis are extremely rare. We describe a child of consanguineous parents who presented with chronic cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, recurrent upper respiratory tract infection, and hypocomplementaemia. A homozygous p.His380Arg mutation in the complement factor I (CFI) gene CFI was identified as the cause, resulting in complete absence of alternative complement pathway activity, decreased classical complement activity, and low levels of serum factor I, C3, and factor H. C4 and C2 levels were normal. The same homozygous mutation and immunological defects were also identified in an asymptomatic sibling. CFI deficiency is thus now added to the growing list of monogenic causes of vasculitis and should always be considered in vasculitis patients found to have persistently low levels of C3 with normal C4.

Type: Article
Title: Cutaneous vasculitis and recurrent infection caused by deficiency in complement factor I
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00735
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00735
Language: English
Additional information: © 2018 Nanthapisal, Eleftheriou, Gilmour, Leone, Ramnath, Omoyinmi, Hong, Klein and Brogan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Keywords: complement factor I, vasculitis, infection, complement deficiency, autoinflammation
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10047495
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