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Prophylaxis and Treatment of Fetal Growth Restriction

Nawathe, A; David, ALM; (2018) Prophylaxis and Treatment of Fetal Growth Restriction. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology , 49 pp. 66-78. 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2018.02.007. Green open access

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Abstract

Foetal growth restriction (FGR) and associated placental pathologies such as pre-eclampsia and stillbirth arise in early pregnancy when inadequate remodelling of maternal spiral arteries leads to persistent high-resistance low-flow uteroplacental circulation. Current interventions concentrate on targeting the placental ischaemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative stress associated with an imbalance in angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors. Recent meta-analyses confirm that aspirin modestly reduces the risk for small-for-gestational-age pregnancy in high-risk women. A dose of ≥100 mg starting by 16 weeks of gestation is recommended. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that low-molecular-weight heparin may prevent FGR; further research is needed to confirm efficacy. Once FGR is diagnosed, no treatment will improve foetal growth. Potential FGR therapies such as phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors or maternal VEGF gene therapy aim to improve poor placentation and/or uterine blood flow. Melatonin, creatine and N-acetyl cysteine have potential as novel neuroprotective and cardioprotective agents in FGR.

Type: Article
Title: Prophylaxis and Treatment of Fetal Growth Restriction
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2018.02.007
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2018.02.007
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Foetal growth restriction, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Aspirin, Low-molecular-weight heparin
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Maternal and Fetal Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10044780
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