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An analytical evaluation of historic glazed tiles from Makli and Lahore, Pakistan

Gill, MS; Rehren, T; (2017) An analytical evaluation of historic glazed tiles from Makli and Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports , 16 pp. 266-275. 10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.10.011. Green open access

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Abstract

The composition and production of pre-modern glazed tiles in Pakistan are not well understood. Here, 38 glazed tile samples sourced from various monuments at Makli Hill and Lahore Fort in Pakistan, dating mainly from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries CE, were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry for a comprehensive technological study to understand the methods used in their production. The analyses were supplemented by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to more fully characterise the raw materials used for the glazes. The Makli tile bodies are composed of clay-based ceramic whereas those from Lahore are stonepaste. Both are coated with soda-lime-silica glazes made using plant ash. Cobalt, copper, lead‑tin yellow and lead‑tin orange are identified as the glaze colorants. White glazes do not have an added opacifier or colorant, but are white due to the presence of an underlying layer of silica particles. Technological variations between the Makli and Lahore tiles are highlighted in the discussions, the former found to resemble traditional kashi ware of Sindh-Multan in their make-up, while the latter matches Mughal tile-work that prevailed for a while locally in the seventeenth century.

Type: Article
Title: An analytical evaluation of historic glazed tiles from Makli and Lahore, Pakistan
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.10.011
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.10.011
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Glazed tiles, Kashi, Pakistan, Makli, Lahore, Technology, SEM-EDSLA-ICP-MS
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology > Institute of Archaeology Gordon Square
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10035919
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