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Unilateral suppression of pharyngeal motor cortex to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals functional asymmetry in the hemispheric projections to human swallowing

Mistry, S; Verin, E; Singh, S; Jefferson, S; Rothwell, JC; Thompson, DG; Hamdy, S; (2007) Unilateral suppression of pharyngeal motor cortex to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals functional asymmetry in the hemispheric projections to human swallowing. J PHYSIOL-LONDON , 585 (2) 525 - 538. 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.144592.

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Abstract

Inhibitory patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were applied to pharyngeal motor cortex in order to establish its role in modulating swallowing activity and provide evidence for functionally relevant hemispheric asymmetry. Healthy volunteers underwent single pulse TMS before and for 60 min after differing intensities of 1 Hz rTMS (n= 9, 6 male, 3 female, mean age 34 +/- 3 years) or theta burst stimulation (TBS) (n = 9, 6 male, 3 female, mean age 37 +/- 4 years). Electromyographic responses recorded from pharynx and hand were used as a measure of cortico-motor pathway excitability. Swallowing behaviour was then examined with a reaction time protocol, before and for up to 60 min after the most effective inhibitory protocol (1 Hz) applied to each hemisphere. Interventions were conducted on separate days and compared to sham using ANOVA. Only high intensity 1 Hz rTMS consistently suppressed pharyngeal motor cortex immediately and for up to 45 min (-34 +/- 7%, P <= 0.001). Adjacent hand and contralateral pharyngeal motor cortex showed no change in response (-15 +/- 12%, P= 0.14 and 15 +/- 12%, P= 0.45, respectively). When used to unilaterally disrupt each hemisphere, rTMS to pharyngeal motor cortex with the stronger responses altered normal (-12 +/- 3%, P <= 0.001) and fast (-9 +/- 4%, P <= 0.009) swallow times, not seen following rTMS to the contralateral cortex or after sham. Thus, suppression of pharyngeal motor cortex to rTMS is intensity and frequency dependent, which when applied to each hemisphere reveals functionally relevant asymmetry in the motor control of human swallowing.

Type: Article
Title: Unilateral suppression of pharyngeal motor cortex to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals functional asymmetry in the hemispheric projections to human swallowing
DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.144592
Keywords: THETA-BURST STIMULATION, 1 HZ RTMS, CORTICOSPINAL EXCITABILITY, CORTICAL REPRESENTATION, MODULATION, ACTIVATION, FREQUENCY, LATERALIZATION, PLASTICITY, INDUCTION
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Movement Neurosciences
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/98960
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