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Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins

Scarpini, C; White, V; Muralidhar, B; Patterson, A; Hickey, N; Singh, N; ... Coleman, N; + view all (2008) Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins. CANCER EPIDEM BIOMAR , 17 (10) 2855 - 2864. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0288.

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Abstract

Purpose: Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by screening will improve clinical outcome. Assessment of anal cytology samples using routine Papanicolaou testing suffers from shortcomings in sensitivity and/or specificity, suggesting that screening tests based on biomarkers may be of value. We tested the suitability in this context of minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins, accurate markers of the deregulated cell cycle entry that characterizes malignancy and premalignancy.Experimental Design: We undertook an initial immunohistochemical study of 54 anal tissue samples and validated our findings using an independent prospective cohort study of 235 anal cytology samples from 144 subjects.Results: In the progression from normal anal epithelium through AIN to SCC, there was increasing expression of MCM2 and MCM5, including in the superficial epithelial third, the source of the majority of cells collected by anal swab. The median labeling indices (LI) for MCM2 and MCM5 in the superficial third of AIN2/3 and SCCs combined were 90.2% and 84.0%, respectively. MCM Us in the superficial layers were significantly greater than Us for Ki67, an alternative marker of cell cycle entry (P < 0.0001). By immunocytochemistry using a mixture of anti-MCM2 and anti-MCM5 antibodies, inummopositive cells were readily identified in anal cytology samples, even at low magnification. MCM testing showed sensitivity for AIN2/3 of 84% (95% confidence interval, 75,93) and for AIN1/viral changes of 76% (68, 84), with overall specificity (for any lesion) of 77% (64, 90).Conclusions: MCMs are promising biomarkers for improving detection of AIN and SCC in anal cytology samples.

Type:Article
Title:Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins
DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0288
Keywords:SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS, HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION, HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY, DNA-REPLICATION, CELL-CYCLE, ABERRANT EXPRESSION, COST-EFFECTIVENESS, CANCER INCIDENCE, NATURAL-HISTORY, MCM PROTEINS
UCL classification:UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Surgery and Interventional Science (Division of)

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