A prospective evaluation of changes in neuropsychological and liver function tests following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt.
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Background/Aims: This study was designed to assess changes in: (a) neuropsychological tests, measures of memory, quality of life and scores for anxiety and depression; (b) liver function tests; and (c) the relationship between these following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt.Methods: Twenty-nine patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for recurrent variceal haemorrhage, 12 matched patients with cirrhosis and variceal haemorrhage managed with variceal band ligation and 16 normal controls were studied. Patients in any of the groups who were clinically encephalopathic were excluded from the study. Serial changes in the conventional liver function tests and Indocyanine green clearance, and psychometric function (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, Quality of Life and the memory and reaction sub-tests of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Assessment Battery) were measured prior to and 1, 3, 9 and 15 months following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt.Results: Over a mean follow up of 9.1 months in the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt group (range 3-28), one patient (3%) developed clinically detectable encephalopathy. Sixty-seven percent of patients with cirrhosis showed evidence of subclinical encephalopathy as compared with the control population. Significant deterioration occurred in the reaction sub-tests of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Assessment Battery in patients, both in the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt group and the controls with cirrhosis, during follow up. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt was followed by significant deterioration in levels of anxiety and psychological component of the quality of life. The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test and the memory sub-test of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Assessment Battery did, however, improve significantly at 1 and 15 months after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin and indocyanine green clearance deteriorated significantly following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between changes in the indocyanine green clearance and changes in the complex and simple reaction time subtests of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Assessment Battery (p=0.6 and r=0.66, respectively).Conclusions: The results of this study showed that about 67% of patients with cirrhosis were subclinically encephalopathic and that temporary deterioration occurred in the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Assessment Battery during follow up, both in patients having transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt and in the controls with cirrhosis. These parallel the changes in the liver function tests and indocyanine green clearance. Temporary deterioration was also observed in the Quality of Life and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale in the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt group, although the measures of memory improved. Further studies should address the biochemical mechanisms of these changes and the role of prophylactic measures.
|Title:||A prospective evaluation of changes in neuropsychological and liver function tests following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt|
|Keywords:||encephalopathy, indocyanine green clearance, liver function tests, neuropsychological tests, quality of life, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS), LATENT PORTASYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, DISTAL SPLENORENAL SHUNT, HEPATIC-ENCEPHALOPATHY, HOSPITAL ANXIETY, DEPRESSION SCALE, PREVALENCE, DISEASE, CIRRHOSIS, CANCER|
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