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Myocardial adaptation to ischaemia - the preconditioning phenomenon

Carroll, R; Yellon, DM; (1999) Myocardial adaptation to ischaemia - the preconditioning phenomenon. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY , 68 S93 - S101.

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The phenomenon of ischaemic preconditioning, highlights a new and endogenous route to myocardial protection, which we believe could be exploited in our search for new therapeutic ways to protect the infarcting myocardium. Ischaemic preconditioning has been shown to be associated with both an early, or acute phase of protection lasting approximately 1-2 hours, as well as a delayed phase or "second window of protection" seen at least 24 hours following the initial sublethal ischaemic insult, and lasting up to 72 hours. We believe that both responses are triggered by similar receptor mediated events in addition to using the similar signalling pathways involving kinase cascades. However it is thought that the ultimate target or end-effector through which the protection is manifest may be different for the early vs, late effects. Some evidence exists that the end-effector involved in early preconditioning may be via the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K-ATP). With respect to the second window of protection, the cellular mechanisms underlying this are not fully understood at present, however we believe that they may be dependent upon a similar signalling transduction pathway with upregulation of cytoprotective proteins such as the heat stress proteins, and/or anti-oxidant proteins. Evidence demonstrating that preconditioning can occur in the human myocardium is also accumulating. In this respect cultured human ventricular myocytes as well as human atrial muscle have been shown to be preconditioned with brief episodes of simulated ischemia. These human preparations also respond to the known triggers and possible end-effecters of preconditioning, (e.g. adenosine receptor stimulation and K-ATP channel opening) as well as being able to elicit their responses through the PKC signalling pathway. Further support for this phenomenon, in man, comes from PTCA studies demonstrating that this invasive procedure can pur patients into a ''preconditioned state''; this effect being associated with reduced ischaemic symptoms as well as the involvement of the adenosine receptor and K-ATP channel. Of further interest is the observation that patients with a previous history of angina, prior to a MI, sustain smaller infarcts and have an improved survival. However the most direct evidence that preconditioning occurs in man comes from studies in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. The above evidence that preconditioning can occur in man makes it now possible to begin to design clinical studies investigating cardioprotective properties of drugs that can specifically mimic this phenomenon. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Type: Article
Title: Myocardial adaptation to ischaemia - the preconditioning phenomenon
Location: FORLI, ITALY
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/75000
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