Firefly luciferin-activated Rose Bengal: In vitro photodynamic therapy by intracellular chemiluminescence in transgenic NIH 3T3 cells.
1818 - 1821.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer (1, 2) is a well-established treatment modality that uses light excitation of a photosensitive substance to produce oxygen-related cytotoxic intermediates, such as singlet oxygen or free radicals (3, 4). Although PDT is advantageous over other forms of cancer treatments because of its limited side effects, its main disadvantage is the poor accessibility of light to more deeply lying malignancies. External light sources such as lasers or lamps can be applied either noninvasively to reach tumors that lie well within the penetration depth of the light or in a minimally invasive fashion (interstitial treatments) in which optical fibers are placed intratumorally through needles. Even with the second approach, light distribution over the tumor is not homogeneous and nonidentified metastatic disease is left untreated. CL, the chemical production of light, is exemplified by firefly light emission mediated by the enzymatic (luciferase + ATP) oxidation of D-luciferin to oxyluciferin (5). This mobile light source is a targetable alternative to external sources of illumination. Here we show the in vitro photodynamic effect of rose bengal activated by intracellular generation of light, in luciferase-transfected NIH 3T3 murine fibroblasts.
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