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Presentation, diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in HIV-infected children in the UK

Cohen, JM; Whittaker, E; Walters, S; Lyall, H; Tudor-Williams, G; Kampmann, B; (2008) Presentation, diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in HIV-infected children in the UK. HIV Medicine , 9 (5) pp. 277-284.

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Abstract

Objectives Management of HIV-infected children with tuberculosis (TB) is challenging. The objective of this study was to assess current treatment and outcomes in a resource-rich setting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods A retrospective case-note review of coinfected children was carried out in a large UK-based HIV family clinic. Results Of 328 HIV-infected children, 18 were diagnosed and treated for active TB.TB presentation led to HIV diagnosis in eight of these 18 children. TB was confirmed microbiologically in 33% of children. Fifteen of the 18 children presented with pulmonary TB, and three with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Immunological status at TB diagnosis did not predict EPTB. The mean CD4 T-cell count at TB presentation was 402-�cells/++L (mean CD4 percentage 16%), with a range of 0–790-�cells/++L (0–34%). In seven children concurrently treated with HAART and anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) guided management. No immune reconstitution disease occurred. There was one death, unrelated to TB, 2 years after completion of ATT. Conclusions An HIV test should be considered in all children diagnosed with TB, especially if there are epidemiological risk factors. Our experience shows that, even with deferral of HAART in concurrently infected children, good therapeutic responses to ATT can be achieved. Where necessary, TDM guiding concurrent HAART and ATT can facilitate good clinical and virological responses

Type: Article
Title: Presentation, diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in HIV-infected children in the UK
Keywords: antiretroviral therapy, children, coinfection, diagnosis, Disease, Family, Hiv, Methods, Review, Risk, Risk Factors, RISK-FACTORS, T-cell, therapeutic drug monitoring, therapy, Tuberculosis
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > ICH Developmental Neurosciences Prog
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/596252
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