Temporomandibular joint disorders in patients with skeletal discrepancies.
Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).
Chapter I: Literature review on the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) Chapter II: Systematic review of TMD in orthognathic patients This review was conducted to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) in orthognathic patients and to determine the effect of the surgical intervention on the status of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A methodological process was applied for study selection, data management and quality assessment and meta-analyses were conducted where appropriate. This review identified 53 papers for inclusion and there was heterogeneity in the diagnosis and classification of TMD between the studies. Patients undergoing orthognathic treatment for the correction of dentofacial deformity and suffering from TMD appeared more likely to see an improvement in their signs and symptoms than deterioration, particularly with respect to pain related symptoms. This information should be given to prospective patients during the consent process, but it should be stressed that no guarantees can be made. Chapter III: TMD in orthognathic patients and a control group with no skeletal discrepancies Sixty eight orthognathic patients and 72 control subjects (with no anterior-posterior, vertical or transverse discrepancies) were recruited for this section of the PhD. Self-reported symptoms and clinical signs of TMD were recorded and compared between the two groups. A significant difference in TMD prevalence was observed between the controls (27.8%) and patients (44.1%), with the patients being more susceptible to TMD. However, although orthognathic patients appear more likely to suffer from TMD, whether treatment improves their TMJ condition is highly questionable. This issue should be highlighted in any informed consent process. Chapter IV: A longitudinal study of TMD in orthognathic patients Twenty orthognathic patients were followed longitudinally throughout treatment to establish whether TMD signs and symptoms altered during the course of treatment. Although no significant differences were found when comparing the pre-treatment (T1) findings with those prior to surgery (T2), sufficient individual changes in TMD signs and symptoms were observed to question the suitability of the "prior to surgery" time point as a baseline for comparisons in future studies. When comparing pre (T1) and post-treatment (T3) TMD changes, no significant differences were observed. This study supports the theory that TMD is a dynamic condition and signs and symptoms are likely to fluctuate throughout treatment. However, the small sample size in this study was clearly a limiting factor. Chapter V: TMJ information course: Comparison of the instructional efficacy of an internet-based TMJ tutorial with a traditional face-to-face seminar A TMJ tutorial was developed on a virtual learning environment (VLE) to enable students to enhance their examination and diagnostic skills and a randomised cross-over trial was then conducted. Thirty postgraduate students were recruited as participants and the success of this mode of teaching was compared with a conventional face-to-face seminar. This study found that both modes of teaching were equally effective in delivering information to students but teaching the topic twice enhanced the retention of knowledge. In addition the students reported positive perceptions of VLE learning and the feedback for this mode of teaching was comparable with traditional methods of teaching.
|Title:||Temporomandibular joint disorders in patients with skeletal discrepancies|
|Open access status:||An open access version is available from UCL Discovery|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute|
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