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Late hepatic artery thrombosis after orthotopic liver transplantation.
Late hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) is a rare complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), conventionally described as occurring more than 30 days after surgery. Only a few reports document its course. In a consecutive series of 634 OLTs (704 grafts), 11 patients (1.7%) had late HAT, diagnosed a median of 6 months (range, 1.8 to 79 months) after OLT. Clinical variables were compared with those of 415 patients without HAT who had a complete database and follow-up, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) surveillance. At presentation, 11 patients had fever, 4 patients had jaundice. Hepatic abscesses were present in 6 patients (3 patients with biliary leak), 4 patients had biliary tree necrosis (2 patients with biliary leak), and 1 patient had no biliary complications. Five patients (45%) underwent accessory hepatic artery anastomosis versus 73 patients (17%) without HAT (P <.05). Five patients (45%) with late HAT had CMV infection versus 14% without HAT (P <.05). Two episodes of late HAT (11 and 79 months) occurred in patients who underwent re-OLT for early HAT (3.9%). Re-OLT was performed in 8 patients a median of 11 days (range, 3 to 37 days) after diagnosis (preceded by intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage). The other 3 patients underwent partial hepatectomy (1 patient), external percutaneous drainage as unfit for surgery (1 patient), and antibiotic therapy only (1 patient). Death occurred in 4 patients who underwent re-OLT (50%) because of septicemia at 11, 23, and 60 days after re-OLT and 17 days after a third OLT. There was one late death (30 months) after partial hepatectomy (hepatitis C recurrence) and one death 6 months after long-term biliary drainage because of sepsis. The 5 survivors have good health with normal liver function test results at a median 52 months (range, 6 to 57 months). In conclusion, late HAT presents with fever caused by hepatic abscesses or biliary leak associated with biliary ischemia and necrosis. CMV infection and accessory hepatic artery anastomosis are risk factors for late HAT in our cohort. Early intervention followed by re-OLT can salvage patients.
|Title:||Late hepatic artery thrombosis after orthotopic liver transplantation.|
|Keywords:||Adult, Aged, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Hepatectomy, Hepatic Artery, Humans, Immunosuppressive Agents, Liver Transplantation, Male, Middle Aged, Postoperative Complications, Postoperative Hemorrhage, Reoperation, Risk Factors, Sepsis, Thrombosis, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
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