Prevention of and treatment for hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation in the nucleoside analogues era.
American Journal of Transplantation
250 - 258.
Post-transplant prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) has significantly reduced hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence rates, but it is rather ineffective in patients with pretransplant viremia. Moreover, long-term HBIG administration is very expensive and may be associated with emergence of escape HBV mutants. Lamivudine has been widely used in the management of HBV transplant patients. Pretransplant lamivudine lowers HBV viremia, decreasing the risk of post-transplant HBV recurrence, but to try and minimize development of resistant HBV strains, it should start within the last 6 months of the anticipated transplantation timing. Preemptive post-transplant lamivudine monotherapy is associated with progressively increasing HBV recurrence rates, but combined therapy with lamivudine and HBIG at relatively low dosage is currently the most effective approach in this setting, even in HBV-DNA-positive patients, who also receive lamivudine in the pretransplant period. The most frequent therapy for post-transplant HBV recurrence is lamivudine, but the increasing resistance rates represent a rather challenging problem. Adefovir dipivoxil and entecavir are currently the most promising agents for lamivudine-resistant HBV strains. All these advances in anti-HBV therapy have made HBV liver disease an indication for liver transplantation irrespective of viral replication status, a complete turn around from 10 years ago.
|Title:||Prevention of and treatment for hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation in the nucleoside analogues era|
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