Activation of the S phase DNA damage checkpoint by mitomycin C.
Journal of Cellular Physiology
468 - 476.
We have studied the rate of DNA synthesis, cell cycle distribution, formation of gamma-H2AX, and Rad51 nuclear foci and association of Rad51 with the nuclear matrix after treatment of HeLa cells with the interstrand crosslinking agent mitomycin C (MMC) in the presence of the kinase inhibitors caffeine and wortmannin. The results showed that MMC treatment arrested the cells in S-phase and induced the appearance of gamma-H2AX and Rad51 nuclear foci, accompanied with a sequestering of Rad51 to the nuclear matrix. These effects were abrogated by caffeine, which inhibits the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases. However, wortmannin at a concentration that inhibits ATM, but not ATR did not affect cell cycle progression, damage-induced phosphorylation of H2AX and Rad51 foci formation, and association with the nuclear matrix, suggesting that the S-phase arrest induced by MMC is ATR-dependent. These findings were confirmed by experiments with ATR-deficient and AT cells. They indicate that the DNA damage ATR-dependent S-phase checkpoint pathway may regulate the spatiotemporal organization of the process of repair of interstrand crosslinks
|Title:||Activation of the S phase DNA damage checkpoint by mitomycin C.|
|Keywords:||Rad51, histone gamma H2AX, Mitomicin C, DNA interstrand crosslinks, nuclear matrix|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Biosciences (Division of) > Structural and Molecular Biology|
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