Fernandez, E.; Alfaro, A.; Tormos, J.M.; Martinez, M.; Vilanova, H.; Walsh, V; Pascual-Leone, A.; (2002) Mapping of the human visual cortex using image guided transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brain Research Protocols , 10 (2) pp.115 - 124 . 10.1016/S1385-299X(02)00189-7.
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We describe a protocol using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to systematically map the visual sensations induced by focal and non-invasive stimulation of the human occipital cortex. TMS is applied with a figure of eight coil to 28 positions arranged in a 232-cm grid over the occipital area. A digitizing tablet connected to a PC computer running customized software, and audio and video recording are used for detailed and accurate data collection and analysis of evoked phosphenes. A frameless image-guided neuronavigational device is used to describe the position of the actual sites of the stimulation coils relative to the cortical surface. Our results show that TMS is able to elicit phosphenes in almost all sighted subjects and in a proportion of blind subjects. Evoked phosphenes are topographically organized. Despite minor inter-individual variations, the mapping results are reproducible and show good congruence among different subjects. This procedure has potential to improve our understanding of physiologic organization and plastic changes in the human visual system and to establish the degree of remaining functional visual cortex in blind subjects. Such a non-invasive method is critical for selection of suitable subjects for a cortical visual prosthesis. 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
|Title:||Mapping of the human visual cortex using image guided transcranial magnetic stimulation|
|Keywords:||Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Mapping, Occipital cortex, Phosphenes, Blind|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Psychology and Language Sciences (Division of) > Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience|
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