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Circulating proinsulin-like molecules.

Yudkin, JS; (1993) Circulating proinsulin-like molecules. J Diabetes Complications , 7 (2) pp. 113-123.

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An improved understanding of the characteristics of proinsulin and its intermediate conversion products has resulted from the use of novel assays for distinguishing these molecules from insulin. Use of such assays may help clarify the role of insulin deficiency in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Levels of proinsulin-like molecules are elevated in subjects who have NIDDM or impaired glucose tolerance. However, the observation that hyperproinsulinemia may occur in individuals without hyperglycemia suggests that elevated proinsulin levels may be a manifestation of beta-cell dysfunction rather than of increased demand on the beta cell. Although the metabolic effects of proinsulin-like molecules have yet to be elucidated, some studies indicate that the effect of these molecules on hepatocytes is greater than that on other insulin-sensitive cells. A potential therapeutic role of proinsulin in NIDDM thus has been envisioned, in that suppression of hepatic glucose output might reduce the risk of hypoglycemia caused by increased peripheral glucose uptake. Clinical study of proinsulin has been discontinued, however, owing to the finding of an association between use of human proinsulin and cardiovascular adverse events in one study. In NIDDM subjects, associations have been reported between elevated des 31,32 proinsulin concentrations and such cardiovascular risk factors as elevated blood pressure, increased serum triglyceride and total cholesterol values, and elevated plasminogen-activator inhibitor levels, suggesting a role of proinsulin in cardiovascular risk. Epidemiologic data, however, indicate that elevated levels of proinsulin-like molecules are related to low birth weight and that low birth weight is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, suggesting that inadequate intrauterine nutrition may be the common antecedent of augmented proinsulin levels and cardiovascular risk.

Type: Article
Title: Circulating proinsulin-like molecules.
Location: United States
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence, C-Peptide, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Fasting, Glucose Tolerance Test, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Insulin, Proinsulin
UCL classification: UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/29546
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