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Paradoxical increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in hypercholesterolaemic rats with impaired renal function and decreased activity of nitric oxide

Rahman, MM; Varghese, Z; Moorhead, JF; (2001) Paradoxical increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in hypercholesterolaemic rats with impaired renal function and decreased activity of nitric oxide. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation , 16 (2) 262 - 268.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: We have shown that acute exposure of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OX-LDL) induces vasoconstriction in renal vessels and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in an isolated perfused rat kidney model by decreasing the activity of nitric oxide (NO). L- arginine has a protective role against OX-LDl-induced vasoconstriction. Micropuncture studies have demonstrated that short-term diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia is associated with decreased GFR and renal blood flow and increased glomerular capillary pressure. This may be mediated by decreased activity of NO. METHODS: Rats were made hypercholesterolaemic by supplementing the standard chow with 4% cholesterol and 1% sodium cholate. A group of rats on hypercholesterolaemic diet also received L-arginine in the drinking water. After 4 and 6 weeks, blood samples and 24-h urine samples were collected for the measurement of biochemical parameters. After 6 weeks, all rats were subjected to isolated perfusion of kidneys at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. During isolated perfusion, the unused contralateral kidney was taken for morphological studies and for assessing the activity of nitric oxide synthase enzyme by beta-NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. RESULTS: Rats fed a high-cholesterol diet had LDL levels 3-6 times greater than the rats fed standard chow. Rats that received L-arginine in the drinking water had serum L-arginine levels 5-6 times greater than control rats. At 6 weeks, creatinine clearance was significantly lower in the rats on the high-cholesterol diet compared to the rats on standard chow and rats on high-cholesterol diet plus L-arginine. Twenty-four-hour urinary total nitrate and nitrite excretion in the hypercholesterolaemic rats was 1.5-2 times greater than that of control rats. Twenty-four-hour urinary cGMP excretion was significantly lower in the rats on a high-cholesterol diet, but in the rats on high-cholesterol diet and L-arginine, 24-h urinary cGMP excretion was not significantly different from that of control rats. During isolated perfusion of kidneys, renal perfusate flow was found to be significantly reduced in the kidneys taken from the rats on a high-fat diet compared to controls. L-arginine supplementation in the drinking water almost completely reversed the effect of a high-fat diet. Inulin clearance was also significantly reduced in kidneys on a high-fat diet in contrast to controls but not in kidneys on high fat-diet and L-arginine. Basal cGMP excretion in urine was significantly lower in the kidneys taken from the rats on a high-fat diet compared to controls. L-arginine supplementation restored the basal cGMP excretion in these kidneys. NO synthase (NOS) enzyme activity as assessed by NADPH diaphorase activity showed that kidney sections taken from the rats on a high-fat diet showed more intense staining, indicating increased activity compared to the kidney sections taken from the rats on a normal diet. CONCLUSION: Though activity of NO is diminished in hypercholesterolaemic rats with impaired renal function, there is a paradoxical increase in NO production and NOS activity. L-arginine reverses the effects of a high-fat diet

Type:Article
Title:Paradoxical increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in hypercholesterolaemic rats with impaired renal function and decreased activity of nitric oxide
Additional information:UI - 21106086 LA - eng RN - 0 (Cholesterol, Dietary) RN - 0 (Nitrates) RN - 0 (Nitrites) RN - 10102-43-9 (Nitric Oxide) RN - 74-79-3 (Arginine) RN - 7665-99-8 (Cyclic GMP) RN - EC 1.14.13.39 (Nitric-Oxide Synthase) RN - EC 1.6.99.1 (NADPH Dehydrogenase) PT - Journal Article DA - 20010222 IS - 0931-0509 SB - IM CY - England
Keywords:activity, As, atherosclerosis, biochemical, Blood, blood flow, BLOOD-FLOW, Brain, Capillaries, cGMP, Cholesterol, CLEARANCE, contralateral, control, Creatinine, DENSITIES, DENSITY, DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN, dialysis, diet, DRINKING, effects, English, enzyme, Enzyme Activity, excretion, EXPOSURE, Filtration, flow, function, GFR, glomerular, glomerular filtration, Glomerular Filtration Rate, GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE, Histochemistry, hypercholesterolacmia, hypercholesterolaemia, Hyperlipidemia, INCREASE, INDUCE, Inulin, isolated kidney perfusion, Kidney, kidneys, L ARGININE, L- arginine, L-ARGININE, LDL, LEVEL, lipoprotein, Low, low density, low density lipoprotein, May, measurement, Methods, MICROPUNCTURE, model, NADPH- DIAPHORASE, NADPH-diaphorase, Nitrate, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, NITRIC-OXIDE, Nitrite, NOS, OXFORD, OXIDE, oxidized low density lipoprotein, PARAMETER, PARAMETERS, Perfusion, PRESS, Pressure, production, RABBIT AORTA, rat, RAT-KIDNEY, rats, RELAXING FACTOR, release, renal, RENAL FUNCTION, Renal Impairment, RENAL-FUNCTION, Result, Role, SAMPLE, SAMPLES, SECTIONS, SERA, serum, SHORT-TERM, Sodium, ST, Staining, Standard, SUPEROXIDE ANIONS, SUPPLEMENTATION, SYNTHASE, TIME, transplant, URINARY, urine, vasoconstriction, vessels, Water, administration & dosage, Animal, Arginine, Dietary, Cyclic GMP, dietary, EC, enzymology, etiology, Hypercholesterolemia, IM, LA, low-density lipoprotein, LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN, Male, metabolism, NADPH Dehydrogenase, Nitrates, Nitric-Oxide Synthase, Nitrites, pharmacology, physiopathology, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Reference Values, Support, Non-U.S.Gov't
UCL classification:UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Medicine (Division of)

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