Chromosomal localization, gene structure, and expression pattern of DDAH1: comparison with DDAH2 and implications for evolutionary origins.
Endogenously produced asymmetrically methylated arginine residues are competitive inhibitors of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) specifically hydrolyzes these asymmetrically methylated arginine residues to citrulline and methylamines. Previously we have proposed that regulation of asymmetric methylarginine concentration by DDAH may provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of NOS activity in vivo. Recently we reported the cloning of human DDAH and identified a novel human DDAH isoform (DDAH I and DDAH II, respectively). Here we report that the DDAH1 gene maps to chromosome 1p22 and confirm that DDAH2 maps to the MHC III region of chromosome 6p21.3. Extensive analysis of the distribution of DDAH1 and DDAH2 mRNA in 50 human tissues indicates differential expression of DDAH isoforms in brain regions, in immune cells, and during development. DDAH2 expression predominates in highly vascularized tissues that express the endothelial NOS isoform and in immune tissues that can express iNOS. Whereas DDAH2 is expressed at relatively high levels in all fetal tissues examined, DDAH1 expression varies little between fetal and adult tissues. The chromosomal localization of the DDAHs is consistent with gene duplication, and consistent with this, comparison of the gene structures indicates that the intron/exon organization is highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of DDAH sequences from diverse species suggests that DDAH gene duplication occurred prior to the emergence of bony fish some 400 million years ago. Overall the data suggest that DDAH2 may be the more ancient of the two genes
|Title:||Chromosomal localization, gene structure, and expression pattern of DDAH1: comparison with DDAH2 and implications for evolutionary origins|
|Additional information:||UI - 20408894 LA - eng RN - 0 (Isoenzymes) RN - EC 3. (Hydrolases) RN - EC 188.8.131.52 (dimethylargininase) PT - Journal Article DA - 20000915 IS - 0888-7543 SB - IM CY - UNITED STATES JC - GEN|
|Keywords:||adult, analysis, Arginine, Brain, cell, CELLS, Chromosome Mapping, Chromosomes, Pair 1, clinical, cloning, Comparative Study, comparison, development, distribution, Endothelial, enzyme, Evolution, Molecular, Exons, expression, Female, fetal, fish, GENE, Gene Duplication, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Genes, Genes, Structural, genetics, Hydrolases, immune, In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence, in vivo, in-vivo, INHIBITOR, INHIBITORS, Introns, Isoenzymes, ISOFORMS, LEVEL, localization, Male, May, MECHANISM, Methylamine, MHC, mRNA, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, NITRIC-OXIDE, NOS, novel, ORGANIZATION, ORIGIN, OXIDE, Pattern, pharmacology, REGION, regions, regulation, SEQUENCE, SEQUENCES, STATE, STATES, Structure, Support, Non-U.S.Gov't, SYNTHASE, Tissue, Tissue Distribution, Tissues, United States|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
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