Recent advances in detrusor muscle function.
Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl
Contractile activation of detrusor smooth muscle is initiated by the release of transmitters from motor nerves. Acetylcholine is a ubiquitous transmitter, as also is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in many animal bladders and in people from several patient groups with pathological bladder function. In recent years there has been progress in explaining several cellular mechanisms that link transmitter release to contraction and these will be considered. The lifetime of ATP in the neuromuscular junction is finite and broken down ultimately to adenosine, which can exert modulatory control of contractile activation. Adenosine depresses nerve-mediated contractions and two sites of action have been proposed: an action on the motor nerves via A receptors to depress further transmitter release and a less well-defined depressant effect on the detrusor muscle. The Ca2+ ions that activate the contractile proteins are derived from intracellular stores, which releases their content via IP receptor activation and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. Filling of the stores in the rest interval is mediated via transmembrane flux of Ca2+through Ca2+ channels. Activation of the channels is regulated by the level of the intracellular [Ca2+], via activation and inactivation of Ca2+-sensitive K channels. Thus, Ca2+ store filling is regulated by intracellular [Ca2+] via a negative feedback process. The presence and physiological function of spontaneous contractions in detrusor remain contentious and little is known about their origin. One possibility is that they originate from random Ca2+ sparks, i.e. localized transient increases of [Ca2+] that may eventually progress to generate a cellular Ca2+ transient. Observations by confocal microscopy have revealed the presence of such sparks, especially near the cell membrane, and thus provide a cellular basis for spontaneous contractions. Finally, the questions arises as to whether detrusor smooth muscle is a functional syncitium. The demonstration of small gap junctions by electron microscopy and the demonstration of the gap junction protein connexin45 indicate that the muscle mass may indeed be functionally connected. The implications regarding the spread of excitation are discussed.
|Title:||Recent advances in detrusor muscle function.|
|Keywords:||Animals, Calcium, Electrophysiology, Humans, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Relaxation, Muscle, Smooth, Neurotransmitter Agents, Urinary Bladder|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
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