Human impacts on carnivore biodiversity inside and
outside protected areas in Tanzania.
Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).
Conservation of biodiversity throughout the world is often characterized by the establishment of protected areas. The implementation of this approach is extremely challenging particularly in developing countries due to expanding human population and demand for resources. Yet, information that is needed to guide managers and policy makers to develop effective conservation strategies is scarce in most of these countries. This thesis aimed to explore the impact of human activities on carnivore biodiversity inside and outside Tarangire National Park in Tanzania using camera traps, and to assess attitudes of agropastoralists towards carnivores using interviews. Results showed no significant difference in carnivore species richness between the park and communal grazing areas outside the park, but was a significantly different between the park and cultivated areas outside it. Non-carnivore species richness was significantly higher outside the park in grazing areas than either within the park or in cultivated areas. However, relative abundance of both carnivores and non-carnivores were both significantly higher in the park than in either grazing areas or cultivated areas outside the park. These variations in species richness and relative abundances are apparently due to differences in the intensity and extent of human use between these areas. Estimation of species absolute abundances targeted individually identifiable species in the park only. Results showed that density of animals per 100 km2 was: leopard (7.9 ± 2.09), serval (10.9 ± 3.17), and aardwolf (9.0 ± 2.54). No estimates were obtained for spotted hyaena and common genet due to a lack of recaptures, while variation in trail density, prey availability, and camera spacing appear to influence species capture. Attitudinal surveys revealed a low level of wildlife-related benefits and reported levels of conflict were generally high despite low levels of livestock depredation, suggesting other factors such as demand for land might be important in the reported conflict.
|Title:||Human impacts on carnivore biodiversity inside and outside protected areas in Tanzania|
|Open access status:||An open access version is available from UCL Discovery|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Arts and Social Sciences > Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences > Anthropology|
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