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Molecular evolution and balancing selection in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 gene (FMO3)

Allerston, CK; Shimizu, M; Fujieda, M; Shephard, EA; Yamazaki, H; Phillips, IR; (2007) Molecular evolution and balancing selection in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 gene (FMO3). PHARMACOGENET GENOM , 17 (10) 827 - 839.

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Abstract

Objectives Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is involved in the metabolism of foreign chemicals, including therapeutic drugs, and thus mediates interactions between humans and their chemical environment. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene cause the inherited disorder trimethylaminuria, or fish-odour syndrome. The objective was to gain insights into the evolutionary history of FMO3.Methods Genetic diversity within FMO3 was characterized by sequencing 6.3 kb of genomic DNA, encompassing the entire coding sequence, some intronic and 3'-untransiated region, and 3.4 kb of 5'-flanking sequence, in 23 potential trimethylaminuric Japanese, and the same 3.4 kb 5'-flanking region in 45 unaffected Japanese. Mutational relationships among haplotypes were inferred from a reduced-median network. The time depth of the variation and ages of individual mutations were estimated by maximum-likelihood coalescent analysis. Test statistics were used to investigate whether the variation is compatible with neutral evolution.Results Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, which segregated as seven distinct haplotypes. Estimated ages of the mutations indicate that almost all predated migration out of Africa. Analysis of the heterozygosity of FMO3 SNPs indicates that genetic differentiation among continental populations is low (F-ST=0.050). Test statistics, based on allele-frequency spectrum, number and diversity of haplotypes, linkage disequilibrium and interspecific sequence comparisons, showed a significant departure from neutral expectations, because of an excess of intermediate-frequency SNPs and haplotypes, a ragged pairwise mismatch distribution and an excess of replacement polymorphisms.Conclusion The results provide evidence that FMO3 has been the subject of balancing selection. Finally, we identify mutations that are potential targets for selection.

Type: Article
Title: Molecular evolution and balancing selection in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 gene (FMO3)
Keywords: balancing selection, evolution, flavin-containing monooxygenase, FMO, haplotype, human, linkage disequilibrium, mutation, nucleotide diversity, single-nucleotide polymorphism, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS, FISH-ODOR SYNDROME, NATURAL-SELECTION, STATISTICAL TESTS, FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS, SEQUENCE VARIATION, POPULATION-GROWTH, DNA POLYMORPHISM, HUMAN GENOME, HUMAN LIVER
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Structural and Molecular Biology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/182821
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