Key determinants of conflict between people and wildlife, particularly large carnivores, around Ruaha National Park, Tanzania.
Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).
Human-wildlife conflict, particularly human-carnivore conflict, is a growing problem in today's crowded world, and can have significant impacts on both human and wildlife populations. This study, bases in the Idodi-Pawaga area adjacent to Tanzania’s Ruaha National Park, explored the main drivers of conflict between people and wildlife, particularly five focal large carnivore species, in order to identify possible mitigation strategies. Considerable antagonism towards wildlife was reported, with particular hostility engendered by large carnivores. The main reasons given for conflict were the risks of wildlife damage, particularly livestock depredation, and attacks upon humans. Initial reported suggested that people were losing 1.2% of their livestock to predators every month, but after long-term monitoring this estimate was revised to 0.32%, and on-site follow-up visits led to a further revised figure of 0.26%, which was far less than the percentage lost to disease. Adherence to traditional livestock husbandry techniques seemed effective at limiting depredation, but follow-up surveys revealed that views towards focal carnivores remained robust even after many months without an attack. These data suggest that conflict is driven by numerous factors, rather than the risk of wildlife damage alone. Traditional pastoralists appeared less tolerant than other ethnic groups, with their history of land alienation, political marginalisation and insecurity over land tenure probably driving some to their antagonism towards wildlife. Income diversification was linked to higher tolerance, but few people received any income or non-consumptive benefits from wildlife. Conversion to an external religion, rather than retaining traditional beliefs, was also linked to a decrease in tolerance for wildlife. Overall, many different factors appeared to influence the magnitude of reported conflict, and it was clear that any mitigation efforts would have to confront the social, political, historical, economic and ecological drivers of conflict in order to develop truly appropriate and effective solutions.
|Title:||Key determinants of conflict between people and wildlife, particularly large carnivores, around Ruaha National Park, Tanzania|
|Additional information:||Authorisation for digitisation not received|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Arts and Social Sciences > Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences > Anthropology|
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