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A Dual Role for Prediction Error in Associative Learning

den Ouden, HEM; Friston, KJ; Daw, ND; McIntosh, AR; Stephan, KE; (2009) A Dual Role for Prediction Error in Associative Learning. CEREB CORTEX , 19 (5) 1175 - 1185. 10.1093/cercor/bhn161. Gold open access

Abstract

Confronted with a rich sensory environment, the brain must learn statistical regularities across sensory domains to construct causal models of the world. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to furnish neurophysiological evidence that statistical associations are learnt, even when task-irrelevant. Subjects performed an audio-visual target-detection task while being exposed to distractor stimuli. Unknown to them, auditory distractors predicted the presence or absence of subsequent visual distractors. We modeled incidental learning of these associations using a Rescorla-Wagner (RW) model. Activity in primary visual cortex and putamen reflected learning-dependent surprise: these areas responded progressively more to unpredicted, and progressively less to predicted visual stimuli. Critically, this prediction-error response was observed even when the absence of a visual stimulus was surprising. We investigated the underlying mechanism by embedding the RW model into a DCM to show that auditory to visual connectivity changed significantly over time as a function of prediction error. Thus, consistent with predictive coding models of perception, associative learning is mediated by prediction-error dependent changes in connectivity. These results posit a dual role for prediction-error in encoding surprise and driving associative plasticity.

Type:Article
Title:A Dual Role for Prediction Error in Associative Learning
Open access status:An open access publication
DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhn161
Publisher version:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC2665159/?tool=pubmed
Keywords:associative learning, cross-modal, dynamic causal modeling, effective connectivity, fMRI, Rescorla-Wagner model, TEMPORAL DIFFERENCE MODELS, DYNAMIC CAUSAL-MODELS, FRONTAL-CORTEX, MISMATCH NEGATIVITY, AUDITORY-CORTEX, VISUAL-CORTEX, BRAIN-REGIONS, REWARD, HUMANS, INTEGRATION
UCL classification:UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology > Imaging Neuroscience
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit

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