Weiskopf, N; Josephs, O; Ruff, CC; Blankenburg, F; Featherstone, E; Thomas, A; ... Deichmann, R; + view all Weiskopf, N; Josephs, O; Ruff, CC; Blankenburg, F; Featherstone, E; Thomas, A; Bestmann, S; Driver, J; Deichmann, R; - view fewer (2009) Image Artifacts in Concurrent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and fMRI Caused by Leakage Currents: Modeling and Compensation. J MAGN RESON IMAGING , 29 (5) 1211 - 1217. 10.1002/jmri.21749.
Purpose: To characterize and eliminate a new type of image artifact in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI (TMS-fMRI) caused by small leakage currents originating from the high-voltage capacitors in the TMS stimulator system.Materials and Methods: The artifacts in echo-planar images (EPI) caused by leakage currents were characterized and quantified in numerical simulations and phantom studies with different phantom-coil geometries. A relay-diode combination was devised and inserted in the TMS circuit that shorts the leakage current. Its effectiveness for artifact reduction was assessed in a phantom scan resembling a realistic TMS-fMRI experiment.Results: The leakage-current-induced signal changes exhibited a multipolar spatial pattern and the maxima exceeded 1% at realistic coil-cortex distances. The relay-diode combination effectively reduced the artifact to a negligible level.Conclusion: The leakage-current artifacts potentially obscure effects of interest or lead to false-positives. Since the artifact depends on the experimental setup and design (eg. amplitude of the leakage current, coil orientation, paradigm. EPI parameters), we recommend its assessment for each experiment. The relay-diode combination can eliminate the artifacts if necessary.
|Title:||Image Artifacts in Concurrent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and fMRI Caused by Leakage Currents: Modeling and Compensation|
|Open access status:||An open access publication|
|Publisher version:||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC3077517/?tool=pubmed|
|Keywords:||transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS, functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, MR artifacts, leakage current, DISTORTION, CORTEX|
|UCL classification:||UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Psychology and Language Sciences (Division of) > Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience|
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology > Imaging Neuroscience
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Neurology > Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders
UCL > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
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