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An examination of groundwater within the Hawara Pyramid, Egypt

Keatings, K; Tassie, GJ; Flower, RJ; Hassan, FA; Hamdan, MAR; Hughes, M; Arrowsmith, C; (2007) An examination of groundwater within the Hawara Pyramid, Egypt. GEOARCHAEOLOGY , 22 (5) 533 - 554. 10.1002/gea.20171.

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Abstract

The Hawara Pyramid is an outstanding monument. However, the mudbrick structure shows signs of erosion, and the passages and chambers are currently submerged. The problem of water ingress has mainly arisen since the 1880s. In this study, an initial assessment of the pyramid structure was made and causes of water ingress were investigated through analysis of water samples. Stable oxygen isotope measurements indicate that the source of water within the pyramid is the Bahr Selah canal. Water within the pyramid is highly saline compared to the Bahr Selah, and evaporation can only partly account for this high salinity. The composition of dissolved ions suggests that dissolution of salts in soils and from bedrock in the vicinity of the pyramid has enhanced the salinity of water percolating into the pyramid structure. Water ingress and salt deposition are at present the main threat to the integrity of the monument. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Type: Article
Title: An examination of groundwater within the Hawara Pyramid, Egypt
DOI: 10.1002/gea.20171
Keywords: WATER-TABLE RISE, ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION, FRACTIONATION, INFILTRATION
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of SandHS > Dept of Geography
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of SandHS > Institute of Archaeology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/175764
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